"THE SPIDER" —the secret organization of Nazi war criminals and sympathizers that protects the guilty, foments race hatred, and carries on Hitler's sinister plans for world domination! A man with the blood of six million Jews on his hands slips into South America ... Hitler's Deputy Fuehrer hides out in a jungle wilderness.. .the head of the Gestapo works with the Russian secret police . . . "Hate sheets" in America denounce the Eichmann trial . . . court records and indictments are "lost," freeing accused Nazis—all traces of The Spider's work!
HITLER'S HEIRS is a top reporter's startling disclosure of the facts behind The Spider—of the hiding places of its directors— of its worldwide web of deceit—and of the peril it presents to the free world. An appendix lists 100 Nazi war eriminals still at large. How many do you know?
CONTENTS Introduction: THE SPIDER .......
PART ONE Chapter
1 THE BULL ...............................
2 DOCTOR DEATH ...........................
3 THE HEAD HUNTERS ........................
4 MORE MEDICAL MURDERERS . . . .
5 THE MONSTERS ..............................
6 A BUSHEL OF EYEBALLS ..................
7 "I STARTED WORLD WAR II" . . .
. 8 GESTAPO MUELLER .........................
9 TOUGHEST MAN ALIVE......................
10 THE DIPLOMATS ..........................
. 11 WANTED BY FRANCE ......................
12 RENDEZVOUS IN RIO ......................
13 THE FOURTH REICH . ......................
14 THE TYCOONS ...............................
15 IRON CURTAIN, IRON CROSS . . . .
16 AUSTRIA'S UNDERGROUND ................
17 AMERICA'S NAZIS, DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED ...
18 THE ARGENTINE AXIS .....................
19 THE NEW AFRIKA KORPS..................
20 THE PLOTTERS ...............................
In a gleaming white villa outside Cairo, a senile old man dictates his voluminous correspondence with fellow fanatics all over the world. Out on the desert beyond the city, a uniformed officer on horseback cracks a hippo-hide whip at a group of ragged Arabs staggering barefoot over the fiery sand. Laughing, he shouts to another officer: "Just like the old days in Treblinka." In Peiping, a one-armed German businessman sits down at a conference table with Chinese officials to discuss the equipment needed for nuclear research. Within the shadow of the Kremlin, a graying colonel of secret police scans a report from East Berlin, his cold eyes flickering rapidly over the neatly-typed pages. He speaks Russian almost as well as German, with the same thick Bavarian accent. At Cap d'Antibes on the French Riviera, a retired diplomat basks in the sun as if he had not a care in the world nor a quarter-million deaths on his conscience. Across two oceans, on the Argentine Riviera, a handsome doctor is called away from a gay cocktail party by a mysterious telephone call. The message from the anonymous caller is simply: "The Jews are back." A seaplane taxis onto the runway of a small private airport at Sao Paulo, Brazil. Before he takes off for the interior with a nervous passenger, the white-haired pilot checks the heavy automatic on his hip and the smaller gun nestled in an underarm holster beneath his black leather jacket. In Newark, New Jersey, a bank accountant studies his ledgers and finds to his satisfaction that the figures tally perfectly. In Bonn, West Germany, a distinguished lobbyist confers with a right-wing member of parliament on the question of pensions for "patriots" who served time in Allied prisons. High in the Austrian Alps, a wealthy farmer sniffs the clear an: for the smell of snow, remembering the golden warmth of Trieste and the golden spoils of Lublin.. . . All these men are linked by a common past. They are Nazi war criminals. And most of them belong to a worldwide Nazi underground movement. 7
Hitler's Heirs Their organization has many branches, many names. In Buenos Aires, it's the National Union Movement. In Mexico City, it's Editora Librera. In New York, it's the National Renaissance Party. In Spain, it's the International Confederation of Non-Marxist Societies. But the men at the top call it Die Spinne—The Spider. This sinister title is appropriate, for The Spider has spun a poisonous web of terror and intrigue all around the world. Its invisible threads join Nazi cells in Europe to similar groups in the Americas, Africa, Asia and Australia. Some of The Spider's story has appeared in the headlines during the years since the end of World War II—the capture and trial of Adolf Eichmann, the reports of Martin Bormann's presence in South America, the activities of George Lincoln Rockwell are a few examples. Propaganda—anti-Jewish, pro"aryan Superman"—and aid to fugitive Nazis are the major activities coordinated by the organization. But the true purpose of Die Spinne is not merely the advancement of crackpot theories and the sentimental protection of the human dregs who survived Hitler's goetterdaemmerung. May 1945 saw the end of the Third Reich and of the German bid for world domination—but Die Spinne is busily, quietly, secretly, working for a Fourth Reich: not necessarily German, but dominated by the hard core of German Nazis. The program has nowhere been set down clearly, but the pattern is clear enough—Die Spinne aims at gaining behind-the-scenes control in enough countries so that the Nazi ideology will be once again a power in the world. The political considerations of "right" or "left," East or West have no meaning to The Spider—in the Arab dictatorships, the troubled waters of South America, the Russian satellites, it works for one end—power. And on the day when that end is achieved—if it is—the political struggles of the Cold War we now know will pale beside the new horrors in store for the world. For several years, The Spider's main nest was 868 Avenida Martin Haedo in Buenos Aires. This office was closed in 1955 when dictator Juan Per6n was deposed. Die Spinne is still active in Buenos Aires, operating through the German-Argentine Chamber of Commerce and several Nazi organizations. But its main propaganda, recruitment and transport offices have been transferred to the United Arab Republic. And its political headquarters has moved back to Germany. The transport office runs the "underground railway" on which thousands of wanted war criminals have escaped to South America and the Middle East. Adolf Eichmann, himself
The Spider 9 a transport specialist, used this route to get to Argentina. Since his capture, others have used it to flee from the Argentine to Arabia. American, British, French, West German and Israeli intelligence services have been investigating Die Spinne's activities for several years. While their findings are classified "top secret," it is known that the Western Allies are gravely concerned over the Nazi comeback campaign. The American Jewish Committee, which conducted its own worldwide inquiry, recently issued a report on the "growing international network of Nazism." The report shows the connections between Old-World and New-World Nazi movements and expresses "serious concern over the activities of neo-Nazis operating on an international basis from Germany and Malmoe, Sweden." It charges that Hungarian, Ukranian and Croatian Fascist societies are working with native American Nazis as part of the global network. Die Spinne's official publication, Der Weg (The Way), was the forerunner of numerous Nazi periodicals now circulating in the United States, South America, England, Germany, Austria and other countries. Central organ of all neo-Nazi groups in Europe today is Nation Europa, a monthly magazine published at Coburg, Germany, in several languages including English. Ex-Nazi Arthur Ehrhardt is editor, publisher and principal stockholder. Other main stockholders include two Chicagoans, a Canadian, a Swede, two Swiss businessmen and several Germans. Nation Europa serves as a clearing house for the new Nazi International. Its contributors include Nazi "fuehrers" in many lands— England's Sir Oswald Mosley, France's Maurice Bardeche, Sweden's Einar Aberg, and their counterparts in North and South America, Italy, Spain, the Near and Middle East. These are Die Spinne's front men and office managers. The real powers, the board of directors of the Swastika Syndicate, are the upper-echelon war criminals who served as Hitler's ministers, generals, diplomats, police commanders and executioners. These Nazi surivors today command an underground army of more than 200,000 fanatic recruits. At least 50,000 of them are in West Germany, where Nazi-style political, youth and military organizations are growing like weeds in a vacant lot. Of the major Nazi criminals tried by an international tribunal at Nuremberg, only three still remain in Berlin's Span-
Hitler's Heirs dau Prison, administered jointly by U.S., British, French and Russian authorities. Those three are Hitler Youth leader Baldur von Schirach, Construction Minister Albert Speer and Deputy Fuehrer Rudolf Hess. Schirach and Speer are serving twenty-year terms. Hess, hopelessly insane for years, was sentenced to life imprisonment. Ironically, the man who succeeded Schirach as Reichsjugendfuehrer is now a wealthy business executive in West Germany. And the man who succeeded Hess as Deputy Fuehrer has never been caught. These two men founded Die Spinne and are among the most active leaders of today's Nazi underground. West Germany's federal, state and local prosecutors and police departments are supposed to be helping track down Nazi killers. But all too often these agencies do more to impede than assist the hunt. The trouble is that the Bonn Justice Ministry, the state courts and the various police agencies are loaded with former Nazi officials, S.S. officers and Gestapo agents—including many men who are wanted for war crimes themselves. The Ludwigsburg bureau, commonly called the Central Office for Investigation and Prosecution of Nazi Crimes, is headed by Prosecutor Erwin Scheule, a vigorous Nazihunter. One wall of his sparsely furnished office is covered by a huge map of Hitler's Germany, dotted with little red circles and yellow-black triangles. Each circle marks the location of a former Gestapo office; each triangle, a concentration camp. Since the office was established by the State Justice Ministers in December, 1958, Scheule and his staff have conducted more than eight hundred separate investigations that have helped to uncover the full scope of Hitler's extermination policy. The search for war criminals also led to discovery of the Nazi underground and its ambitious plans for restoring Hitler's heirs to power. After questioning thousands of victims and plowing through mountains of documentary evidence collected in Germany and abroad, the Central Office has completed nearly five hundred of its investigations and has sent its findings to local courts. The biggest of these cases involves more than nine hundred Nazis stationed at Auschwitz concentration camp, the world's greatest murder mill. As this is written, only about thirty of the nine hundred have been apprehended. Their trial was to be Germany's equivalent of the Eichmann trial. Prosecutor Scheule says his work has been hampered be-
The Spider 11 cause many Nazi documents captured by the Allies during or after the war are unavailable to German legal officers. Furthermore, he admits that witnesses to Nazi crimes, especially German witnesses, are often reluctant to cooperate with his inquiries. "They sometimes lie to us by saying people we are seeking are dead," Scheule reports. "If we believed all these accounts of deaths, we could have closed our office a month after it opened." Another difficulty is that officers of the Gestapo, the S.S. Elite Guard and the S.D. Security Service—especially those assigned to the Reich Security Main Office in Berlin—were able to equip themselves with false identification papers while removing their own records and fingerprints from Nazi files. Die Spinne is a major target of both the Israel Security Service and the German War Crimes Office, for the shadowy Nazis in the underground web include several of the world's most wanted war criminals. Hitler's Heirs is the story of The Spider. Part One deals with the war criminals who form it and whom it has helped escape punishment for their crimes—on the comparatively rare occasions when such punishment seemed imminent. Some of these men are in hiding, some are respected residents of Germany, the Near East, and South America. Part Two tells of Die Spinne as an organization—as the power behind the neo-Nazi movements in Europe, on both sides of the Iron Curtain; as a military and political influence in the United Arab Republic; as a continent-wide underground in South America; and as the central directorate of United States hategroups. This book has not been written to rake over the ashes of the past, or to beat the drums for mere vengeance. It has been written in the belief that The Spider, and the men who form it, are an actual, present danger to every one of us. And a danger must be known to be faced.
"Martin Bormann is dead . . . " Erich Kempka, Hitler's chauffeur, June 20, 1945. "Martin Bormann is still alive . . ." Dr. Gregorio Topolevsky, former Argentine ambassador to Israel, May 9, 1961. Between these two contradictory statements stretch sixteen years and the most intensive manhunt in history. The hunt still goes on. The hunters believe it will end with the capture of Martin Bormann, Hitler's deputy and the world's most wanted war criminal. The intelligence services of the United States, Britain, West Germany, Israel, Sweden and Argentina have documented evidence that Bormann escaped from Berlin after Adolf Hitler's death and fled to South America, where he organized a global network of Nazi cells. His sinister hand has been seen in several plots to restore Hitler's henchmen to power. So far as the general public and most students of the Hitler era are concerned, however, Bormann's fate is an unsolved mystery that began in burning, shell-shocked Berlin the night of May 1, 1945. Hitler had killed himself the preceding day. His gasolinesoaked corpse was cremated, as were the bodies of Eva Braun, his long-time mistress and short-time bride; Dr. Paul Josef Goebbels, his club-footed Propaganda Minister; Frau Goebbels and the six Goebbels children. As darkness fell on May Day, the underground bunker behind the Chancellery was set afire. Flames from the bunker and nearby buildings made a giant funeral pyre for the Teutonic gods of the Third Reich. The Russians were only a block away, at the east end of the Tiergarten. About 500 Nazi Party and S.S. Elite Guard officers milled about in Wilhelmstrasse outside the Reichschancellery. Many of them stayed there until midnight, waiting for orders that never came. Martin Bormann, a pudgy, bull-necked figure in the black 12
The Bull 13 uniform of an S.S. general, left the Chancellery around two A.M. on May 2. With him were Erich Kempka, Hitler's longtime chauffeur, and Dr. Werner Naumann, State Secretary to the Propaganda Ministry and Goebbels' successor. They crossed the street and entered the deserted Wilhelmplatz subway station. By the flickering light of pocket torches, they walked along the U-bahn tracks to the railroad yard behind the Friedrichstrasse Bahnhof. From there, they planned to cross the River Spree and sneak through Russian outposts. Somewhere along this route, they were joined by one-armed Artur Axmann, Hitler Youth leader. He had deserted a "suicide squad" of teen-age boys and girls at Pichelsdorf Bridge, exhorting them to remain at their posts and fight to the end. Kempka's version of the Berlin flight was related to U.S. Army intelligence officers about two months later when he was picked up at Hintersee, in the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden. He said Bormann and Naumann made their way from the Chancellery to the Friedrichstrasse Station without incident, then stopped near the station to discuss how to get away from the Russians. "Others joined them behind a large German tank and some armored vehicles," Kempka said. "They walked alongside the armored column as it moved toward the Russian lines. The column, preceded by men on foot, passed through a tank trap and had gotten fifty yards or so past it when the tank was hit by a bazooka shell. "I was about three or four yards behind the tank. Bormann and Naumann were directly beside it. The shell smashed into them and I saw their bodies hurled away. They could not have survived." Kempka repeated this story at the Nuremberg war crimes trials and many investigators accepted it—until Naumann turned up alive and well in Germany a few years later. In the confusion surrounding Naumann's "resurrection," nobody thought to ask him about Bormann. Artur Axmann also escaped to Bavaria. When captured by American troops, he gave a different account of Bormann's fate. He said he saw the Deputy Fuehrer lying dead in the railroad yard near Friedrichstrasse Bahnhof. There were no wounds or other visible marks on the body, he added. His theory was that Bormann took poison because he realized he could not escape. Noting that Bormann's companions had no trouble getting away, investigators dismissed the Axmann account as an obvious lie. But Kempka's version was published in several histories of
14 Hitler's Heirs the Third Reich and remains there despite Naumann's reappearance and other evidence that it too was a fabrication. Both Kempka and Axmann later told a German court at Berchtesgaden that Bormann was killed trying to break out of besieged Berlin. Presumably, they had straightened out the discrepancies in their stories by this time, for the court declared Bormann officially dead. The only trouble was that he refused to remain buried. What really happened to Martin Bormann? To get the answer to this question, war crimes investigators traveled thousands of miles, questioned hundreds of witnesses and compiled thousands of pages of secret evidence. This is the consensus of their findings: Bormann, Naumann, Axmann and Kempka fled from Berlin together. They crossed through the weakest spot in the Soviet lines, commandeered a German staff car outside the city and drove over back roads to Hamburg, in the British occupation zone. From there, they made their way south to Bavaria. The Bavarian and Austrian Alps had been chosen months before as the best spot for a last-ditch stand against the Allied armies. When the Third Reich fell, Adolf Eichmann and his exterminators headed for Alt-Aussec in the Salzkammergut while Bormann and his cohorts gathered a few miles away on the German side of the border. This would account for Kempka's presence near Berchtesgaden, scenic site of Hitler's "eagle's nest." Bormann also had a mountain retreat on the Obersalzburg a short distance from Berchtesgaden. He called it Halali, the German term for the hunting call "tallyho." Unlike the Berchtesgaden fortress, Halali had received no publicity and few outside Bormann's inner circle knew of its existence. Among those who did were Major General Otto Ohlendorf, the intellectual killer who butchered 90,000 Jews in the year he commanded one of Hitler's extermination squads, and Hartman Lauterbacher, Gauleiter or chief political officer of Southern Hanover. Before he was hanged for war crimes, Ohlendorf stated flatly that Bormann had escaped from Berlin. He suggested investigators question Lauterbacher for further details. Official British records of the Lauterbacher investigation quote him as saying: "I saw Bormann in the Reichschancellery in Berlin on April 11, 1945. I had gone to Berlin for orders, as most of Hannover had been overrun by American forces. "Bormann was very busy. He paid hardly any attention to
The Bull 15 me, only repeating such remarks as 'Carry on the fighting; keep the people up to scratch; the war will be finally won even if it occurs in a manner previously unforseen.' "Bormann telephoned frequently on outside lines and had many visitors. The Russians had reached the Oder River and Bormann spent much time giving details of the Oder defenses from maps to civilians who were unknown to me. "The civilians—perhaps they were S.S. officers in civilian clothes—seemed to be in Bormann's confidence. He told us all many times that 'in a certain circumstance we will meet in Halali.' " Lauterbacher claimed he did not know where Halali was, however. Acquitted of war crimes in 1945, he was later rearrested as a member of the Nazi Party, an organization declared illegal by the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. But before he could be brought to trial a second time, he escaped from a British detention camp outside Hamburg with the help of the Nazi underground. Presumably, he went to keep the rendezvous at Halali—or some other Nazi nest. Meanwhile, the hunt for Bormann had developed several promising leads. By the summer of 1945, Allied intelligence officers received reports that Bormann—who held the ranks of LieutenantGeneral, Reichsminister and Chief of the Party Chancellery in addition to Deputy Fuehrer—had acquired a new title: Commander-in-chief of Germany's underground army. This guerilla force was divided into three main units—the Werewolves, which Bormann and Heinrich Himmler had organized, over the opposition of the German General Staff, to fight behind enemy lines; the Volkssturm, or people's militia, called up in the final weeks of the war with Bormann at its head; and Axmann's fanatic youth corps. Allied forces soon pulled the Werewolves' fangs and the Volkssturm disbanded without a fight. American commanders then organized "Operation Nursery" to drive the youth packs out of the Black Forest and the Bavarian mountains. Hundreds of young Nazis were rounded up, along with their chief, Axmann, of whom more will be heard later. Those that escaped the American dragnet retreated to the snow-capped slopes along the German-Austrian frontier and helped form a new guerilla band known as the Edelweiss Pirates. Bormann was thoroughly familiar with this wild and beautiful region. He had roamed its forests as a boy and returned as a young man to make romantic conquests in most of the mountain villages.
16 Hitler's Heirs His chunky, muscular physique and his insatiable sexual appetite prompted the girls of the Obersalzburg to call him "The Bull"—a nickname that stuck throughout his career. Though his many enemies in Berlin referred to him as "The Brown Eminence" and "Hitler's Devil," to the old guard from Bavaria he remained Bormann the Bull. It was Bormann who introduced Hitler to the spectacular scenery of Berchtesgaden and to the blonde, blue-eyed local girl who became Der Fuehrer's partner in life and death. And so it was only natural that Bormann should return to his Alpine haunts after his master's suicide. No one knew the mountains better. No one would be safer there. He hid in the hills for four months. Then he apparently decided to risk a visit to another old hangout, Munich, the Bavarian capital. He was seen there in October, 1945, by J.A. Friedl, former Nazi and former top sergeant of Munich police. Friedl, who had known Bormann since the early days of the Nazi Party, later made a sworn statement to U.S. Army and Bavarian authorities. "I saw Martin Bormann with some other men in a car parked in front of the Spanish Consulate," he said. "I approached the car and greeted Bormann. He remembered me and we chatted together for a few minutes. From what I saw and heard, I gathered that Bormann was trying to arrange a visa to enter Spain." Nine months after this incident, Bormann again was reported in Munich—this time by his former chauffeur. Jakob Glas, a long-time Munich resident, was Bormann's personal driver for several years until he was fired in 1944 during an argument over the theft of some vegetables from his employer's garden. On July 26, 1946, Glas was standing on a Munich street corner. Glancing into a passing auto, he saw his old boss riding in the front seat next to the driver. "I know Bormann and the man I saw was Bormann," he stated positively to U.S. intelligence officers a few days later. "I am absolutely certain. The auto was moving slowly and I got a good look at him. He was dressed in ordinary, rather shabby civilian clothes. There were some other men with him, but I didn't get a close look at them. I was too busy staring after Bormann." Between the two Munich appearances, there were other indications that Bormann was still active in Bavaria. Dr. Wilhelm Hoegner, first postwar Minister-President of Bavaria, announced in April, 1946, that Bormann was direct-
The Bull 17 ing a guerilla force of 40,000 S.S. men and Hitler Youth members from his mountain stronghold in southern Bavaria. An anti-Nazi who fled to Switzerland during the war, Dr. Hoegner disclosed a list of 400 German officials marked for assassination by Bormann's Edelweiss Pirates. He and two other Minister-Presidents headed the list, discovered when Munich police raided the homes of several suspected members of the Nazi underground. Other documents found in the raids named Bormann and Naumann as leaders of the underground operation. The papers indicated Bormann and other high-ranking Nazis were hiding in the forests of the Obersalzburg. American soldiers and Bavarian police went into the mountains and located a stone hunting lodge which may have been Halali. The lodge bore signs of recent occupancy. Embers still glowed in the fireplace. Food was on the kitchen table. And charred scraps of paper indicated the hunted hunters had disposed of all incriminating records before they departed. Though Bormann was not there to greet them, the searchers found a consolation prize—$5 million in gold coins hidden under the wooden floor. An official U.S. Army Intelligence report on the gold cache states that it was "assigned by Bormann to finance Nazi underground resistance." The lodge also contained shortwave radio equipment and an arsenal of small arms. A few weeks after the Pirates' buried treasure was unearthed, U.S. Army patrols returned to the Bavarian Alps on another search mission. This time they were looking for blonde, 31-year-old Gerda Christian, Hitler's last secretary and an old friend of both Bormann and Eva Braun. Like Eva, Gerda had been brought into Der Fuehrer's official family by Bormann. She may even have been one of the Bull's many mistresses. She was present in the Berlin bunker during the last days of the Third Reich. How or when she left is not known. A few months later, she was back in her native Berchtesgaden. Intelligence agents believed she could lead them to Bormann. But, for some unexplained reason, they delayed taking her into custody. On June 7, 1946, intelligence officers called at her home and instructed her to leave for Nuremberg the following morning to appear before the International War Crimes Tribunal. She assured them she would be there. When she failed to arrive in Nuremberg on June 8 or 9, the officers returned to Berchtesgaden with orders to arrest her. But Gerda had disappeared. U.S. troops searched for her throughout occupied Bavaria,
18 Hitler's Heirs without success. The Bormann gang apparently had spirited her out of the country to keep her from testifying. In July, after Bormann was reported seen in Munich, American forces made an all-out effort to smash his Alpine army. Heavily-armed patrols combed the mountains and rounded up hundreds of hungry, disillusioned guerillas. Many of the Edelweiss Pirates were willing, even eager, to talk about their exploits. They said Bormann had directed then" operations by radio from his forest hideout. The busy Bull also had been in touch with other Nazi cells scattered throughout Europe from Spain to Sweden. One of the most active of these underground groups was the Swedish fascist movement, with headquarters in Malmoe. When the Third Reich collapsed, many Nazis fled to neutral Sweden from Norway, Denmark and northern Germany. A number of Norwegian "quislings" also were harbored by Swedish sympathizers. From Malmoe, long a hotbed of Nazi activities, the fugitives caught ships for South America and other friendly climes. Swedish security police infiltrated the Malmoe underground early in 1946. After months of cloak-and-dagger investigation, they obtained evidence that the group received regular orders from Bormann, via courier. Among the documents they collected were a coded list of Nazi war criminals whose flights from justice were arranged in Malmoe, and Bormann's five-year plan for a Nazi comeback. With typical Nazi arrogance, Hitler's Shadow predicted that his underground would be back in power within 10 years and that its first move in the open would be made in 1950. Word of the Malmoe investigation eventually reached the Swedish press. Though the security agents' reports were classified "top secret," newsmen managed to learn part of their explosive contents. On Dec. 11, 1946, two Stockholm newspapers—Arbetet and Aftontidningen—announced that Bormann was in South America. In Germany, where the No. 2 Nazi had been tried and sentenced to death in absentia for crimes against race and humanity, U.S. and British intelligence services also received word that Bormann had skipped to the Argentine. According to their informants, Bormann left Bavaria in the summer of 1946, went to Switzerland to get travel funds from a secret Nazi bank account, then traveled to southern Spain where a submarine was waiting to take him to Argentina. His destination was said to be Patagonia. It was the logical place for him to light, for the Patagonian pampas were crawl-
The Bull 19 ing with German refugees, many of them war criminals and several only slightly less important than the Deputy Fuehrer himself. The Asociacion de Mayo, an Argentine refugee group in Uruguay, claimed Bormann arrived off the Argentine coast aboard the German submarine U-435 and came ashore near Rawson, a Patagonian port about midway between Buenos Aires and Tierra del Fuego. The U-435 then was sunk by members of its crew. This report was never verified, but intelligence agents learned that at least three German U-boats landed passengers on the southern Argentine coast between June, 1945, and October, 1946. High-ranking Nazis were aboard all of the subs. Spruille Braden, U.S. Ambassador to Argentina at the end of World War II, sent an intelligence unit to Patagonia to investigate the U-boat landings. The American agents were intercepted near Rawson by German-speaking gunmen who ordered them out of the region. Braden protested to the Argentine government. After considerable delay, police accompanied U.S. agents to the areas where U-boats had been seen. They interviewed many natives who had seen the landings and many Germans who claimed to be refugees from the Hitler regime. But no major war criminals were found. The big ones again got away. Bormann and his staff reportedly had gone inland to lose themselves in the vast grasslands where an army could never find them. Convinced Hitler's deputy was still alive, the U.S. State Department in 1947 distributed his photograph and description to American embassies, consulates and missions all over the world. American officials in Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Uruguay, and Peru in particular were alerted to be on the lookout for the elusive master criminal. At various times in the next few years, Bormann was reported living on a ranch in Patagonia, in a mining town in the Andes mountains and in the jungles of Brazil. His exact whereabouts from 1946 to 1950 have not been determined, but he popped up in Buenos Aires in 1950 and was seen there by several reliable witnesses who knew him in Germany. American agents knew he was there, but there was nothing they could do about it. Dictator Peron took good care of his Nazi pals, put them on the public payroll and protected them from war crimes investigators. He took especially good care of Martin Bormann, for the Bull had helped Peron overthrow the previous Argentine government.
Hitler's Heirs Bormann was allowed to come and go as he pleased. When foreign governments made inquiries, Peron and his police officials simply denied any knowledge of Bormann's presence in their country. But several persons swore Bormann was living a life of luxury in a Buenos Aires suburb, where he owned an airconditioned villa and employed a retinue of former S.S. men, including members of Hitler's personal bodyguard. He reportedly patronized the city's most elaborate bordellos and cabarets. From time to time, he was seen with attractive young women described as his mistresses. His wife, Gerda, who bore him ten children in twelve years, had died in Germany a few years after the war. According to reliable informants, Bormann's favorite B.A. hangouts, outside the bordellos, were the smart Cabana restaurant and the ABC German restaurant on Lavalle Street, both in the heart of the city. These witnesses say Bormann habitually wore a black glove to disguise a false right hand. Investigators believe he was wounded while fleeing Berlin, perhaps by the Russian shell described so vividly by Kempka, and subsequently had his right hand or arm amputated. Also missing is a small forehead scar Bormann acquired about thirty years ago as one of Hitler's brown-shirted street brawlers. The scar reportedly was removed by plastic surgery, but most of his other facial features remained unaltered. During his years in B.A., Bormann bossed Nazi underground activities from Die Spinne headquarters in Avenida Martin Haedo. He was seen there with Johannes von Leers, the Nazi propagandist, and other high-ranking Hitler henchmen. When Peron was deposed in 1955, Bormann and his entourage left Argentina for a time. In 1957, the mayor of a West German city reported he met Bormann in a Brazilian jungle while he was hunting there. A South American mining engineer told of meeting three heavily-armed Germans at an Indian village in the Brazilian wilds, near a small airstrip used to deliver medical supplies to the natives. "From newspaper photographs, I recognized one of the Germans as Martin Bormann," the engineer said later. "He wore a Luger pistol and had a black glove on his right hand. The men with him carried machetes, rifles and pistols. "Bormann introduced himself as a German businessman who was on a hunting expedition. We chatted for several minutes in Spanish and he seemed friendly enough. Apparently
The Bull 21 he didn't think I would recognize him. His bodyguards stayed close to him and said nothing." Still another report stated the most wanted Nazi was living on a plantation near the town of Obera in Misiones Province, Brazil. When the political climate cooled in Argentina, Bormann moved back to Buenos Aires. But he returned to Brazil in a hurry when his old pal Adolf Eichmann suddenly disappeared. On May 30, 1960, one week after Israeli Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion informed the world of Eichmann's capture, a warrant for Bormann's arrest was issued to Brazilian federal police. He was reported hiding in the southern state of Santa Catarina, where many German refugees reside. Police searched for him there, without success. No house-to-house canvass was made. He could have been lying low in any one of a thousand German homes. The Santa Catarina tip was supplied by extremely reliable informants. Investigators are positive this information was correct. Four months later, Argentine police picked up a one-armed German whose resemblance to Bormann was nothing short of remarkable. He said he was Walter Flegel and that he lost his right arm in the war. Flegel's wife, who met and married him in Argentina after the war, was shown a photograph of Bormann. She agreed it looked exactly like her husband. The suspect was detained for a week, then released. Interior Minister Alfredo Vitolo announced that police had established he was not Bormann. This was proved, Senor Vitolo said, by the fact that Flegel was two inches taller than Bormann's measurements. However, no witnesses who knew Bormann were asked to view the suspect. And no Israeli or West German agents were allowed to question him. "The Argentine police have no evidence that Bormann is not dead," Senor Vitolo added. This statement later was disputed by Dr. Gregorio Topolevsky, Argentina's former ambassador to Israel. He told reporters in Tel Aviv that Bormann had been living under an alias in Argentina and that his presence there was known to Argentine police. He said Bormann fled to Brazil in May, 1960, after the Eichmann kidnaping. The diplomat added that there were several Nazi cells in Argentina, mainly in the south, and that they had transferred huge sums of money from Switzerland. Other sources gave this description of the elusive Nazi chief:
22 Hitler's Heirs He was born in 1900 but, despite the years of ducking and running, be looks no older than 50 or 55. He is beefy and bald, except for a fringe of gray-brown hair at the sides and back of his head. His face is round and virtually unlined. Its habitual expression is one of placid smugness. He seldom smiles. He has a fleshy, slightly prominent nose and hard, alert brown eyes. In profile, he seems to have a slightly receding chin but this is not apparent from the front. In the old days, his erect military bearing made him appear taller than his five feet eight inches. Now his middle-aged paunch makes him seem short and deceptively soft. The Bull is still tough, muscular and amorous. He takes strenuous daily exercises to keep him in shape for his nighttime sports. He is a moderate-to-heavy drinker, but seldom shows any effects from alcohol. Some of his postwar mistresses have been located and questioned. None of them could supply any important information. None of them really knew anything about him. But by pursuing the old French line of inquiry—"Cherchez la femme"—the hunters eventually hope to find the right women to lead them straight to The Bull's lair. He has one other hobby—jazz records. He never travels without suitcases full of recordings, mostly by American swing and Dixieland orchestras. Says one investigator: "If Louis Armstrong tours South America, we may find Bormann in one of his audiences." A master of intrigue and double-cross, Bormann served a brief prison term for a political murder before the Nazis took over in Germany and he became a member of Hitler's inner circle. Eventually, he betrayed almost every top-ranking official of the Reich cabinet except the equally sinister Dr. Goebbels and Heinrich Mueller, chief of the Gestapo.' Rudolph Hess, Hitler's private secretary and deputy, made Bormann his assistant. And The Bull repaid him by going after his job. In 1941, Bormann persuaded the psychotic Hess that Hitler wanted peace with England. He talked Hess into the mad scheme of flying to Britain to negotiate a truce. In May, 1941, Hess took off for Scotland in a Messerschmitt 110 fighter plane, convinced it was his destiny to bring Germany and England together. Bormann immediately stepped into his shoes as deputy party leader and head of the Reichschancellery. Bormann later offered this explanation of the Hess flight in a secret letter to Heinrich Himmler: "Hess was depressed over
. The Bull 23 impotence, which a treatment failed to cure. He wanted to prove that despite this he was a real man, and he thought of aviation as the most daring thing he could do. By his flight, he wanted to prove his manhood to himself, his wife, the party and the German people." From his new vantage point, Bormann conducted a ruthless persecution of church leaders and German Jews. "National Socialism and Christianity are irreconcilable," he wrote in a party propaganda organ. Later, he expanded his field of persecutions to all of occupied Europe. His fanatic hatred of Jews in particular and all non-Aryans in general went even farther than Hitler's demented ravings. He was extremely active in procurement of slave labor for the German war machine. Under his supervision, some five million foreign workers were imported to Germany during the war and many of them were literally worked to death. Bormann also directed the confiscation of art treasures and other valuable private and public property from occupied countries. In this fashion, he stole loot worth many millions of dollars. Bormann was responsible for the infamous Bullet Decree which authorized the Gestapo to kill all war prisoners who tried to escape, refused to work or otherwise broke the rules of their prison camps. He encouraged the mass murders of Soviet war prisoners and the lynchings by German civilians of captured American and British airmen. He outdid even Hitler and Himmler in repressive measures against captive Jews, Slavs, gypsies and others he considered "sub-human." "The Slavs are to work for us," he wrote in 1942. "Insofar as we don't need them, they may die. Therefore compulsory vaccination and German health services are superfluous. The fertility of the Slavs is undesirable. They may use contraceptives or practice abortion—the more the better. "Education is dangerous. It is enough if they can count to 100. Every educated person is a future enemy. Religion we leave to them as a means of diversion. As for food, they won't get any more than is absolutely necessary. We are the masters. We come first." On Poles: "There should be one master race only for the Poles—the Germans. Two masters, side by side, cannot and must not exist. Therefore all representatives of the Polish intelligentsia are to be exterminated. This sounds cruel, but such is the law of life." Bormann once planned to wipe Holland off the face of the earth and exterminate its entire population.
Hitler's Heirs This maniacal plot was disclosed at the Nuremberg trial of Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Nazi High Commissioner for the Netherlands. Seyss-Inquart testified that Bormann ordered the demolition of Holland's vast network of dykes in reprisal for a general strike against the occupation authorities. The witness added that Holland "would have disappeared under the water in a few weeks" if he personally had not refused to carry out the demolition order. Seyss-Inquart's attempt to picture himself as the saviour of Holland did not save him from the hangman. He died Oct. 15, 1946, on the Nuremberg gallows. But his testimony at least showed that some of Bormann's schemes were so diabolical that they shocked and sickened even a callous killer like the Netherlands commissioner. Most high-ranking Nazis, especially those on the German General Staff, viewed Bormann's sinister activities with a mixture of fear and disgust. His enemies, and he had many in high places, considered him Hitler's evil genius. Himmler and Reichsmarschall Goering both fell out of favor with Der Fuehrer due to the diabolic deputy's intrigues. He regulated his working, sleeping and eating hours to conform with those of Hitler, so he would be constantly available when his master called. From 1943 on, he sat in on almost every Hitler conference and manipulated the subtle strings that influenced many of Hitler's most momentous decisions. For all these reasons and more, the Nuremberg tribunal sentenced him to hang. One of Bormann's most fantastic schemes was a long-range, post-war campaign of free love and polygamy. The plan, designed to counteract the effects of German war losses, was submitted to Hitler in 1944. Pointing out that the fertility of German women was "our most important asset," Bormann said the word "illegitimate" should be abolished. He planned to encourage all available German males to establish "stable conjugal relations" with as many unmarried women as possible in order to boost the birth rate. Though he did not get an opportunity to test his polygamy project in Germany, there is evidence that he tried it out in Argentina. The free love theory was exported to Patagonia along with other Nazi doctrines and applied in several backcountry German communities there. Bormann himself did his best to improve the Aryan breed.
The Bull 25 Besides his ten legitimate children, he fathered at least a dozen illegitimate offspring in Germany, Austria and South America. Several of his relatives have been located and questioned. They were unable or unwilling to shed any light on his whereabouts. But the hunters are far from discouraged. They feel the end of their long search is very near. One of the few admissions made by Adolf Eichmann was that Bormann is still alive. This was disclosed, according to an Amsterdam newspaper, by Tuvia Friedmann, chief of the Israel documentation on Nazi crimes and the man most responsible for Eichmann's capture. Friedmann is now trying to catch Bormann. Dr. Fritz Bauer, district attorney for the West German state of Hesse and prosecutor of several high-ranking Nazis, also is compiling evidence that may lead to Bormann's arrest. Dr. Bauer is convinced Bormann is directing the Nazi underground from South America. One of the Israeli agents who kidnapped Eichmann returned to Argentina recently to help tighten the dragnet around Bormann. "We have known since 1952 that Martin Bormann is alive," he says. "When the right moment comes, we will strike hard."
On a sunny March morning, while Adolf Eichmann was awaiting trial in Jerusalem, five men left Buenos Aires in a large American car and drove south along the sparkling Rio de la Plata. They were heading for Mar del Plata, summer playground on the Atlantic Ocean about 250 miles from the Argentine capital. The men wore sunglasses and sports clothes. They looked like typical tourists bound for fun and frolic on the Argentine Riviera. But these were no ordinary vacationers. They were agents of the Israel Security Service. Two of them lived in Buenos Aires. The others had flown in from Rome and Tel Aviv for a special mission—a commando operation similar to that which bagged Eichmann 10 months before. One of the agents, in fact, had taken part in the Eichmann kidnaping. This time they were after Eichmann's most efficient exterminator—Dr. Josef Mengele, the fiendish Doctor Death of Auschwitz murder camp. An Auschwitz survivor spotted Mengele in Mar del Plata and notified Israeli authorities in Buenos Aires. Within 48 hours, the secret agents were speeding toward the resort city. They wanted the 50-year-old physician for the murders of one million Jews. And for an even more personal reason—the murder of one of their own. He was suspected of killing an attractive woman agent who tracked him to Brazil a few months after Eichmann was captured. The five Secret Service men arrived in Mar del Plata on the afternoon of March 15, 1961. Checking into a small hotel a few blocks from the ocean, they contacted the man who had recognized Mengele. They showed him photographs of the tall, handsome doctor in his Nazi S.S. uniform and more recent snapshots taken in Argentina and Brazil. "That's him," their informant said. "I could never forget that face. He sent my wife and children to the gas ovens." The man did not know where Mengele was staying in Mar del Plata, so the agents began a careful, time-consuming search of the bustling city and its five-mile oceanfront. It was late 26
Doctor Death 27 summer, by the Argentine calendar, and the beach season was at its height. Mar del Plata's resident population of 115,000 had more than tripled. Hotels, beach clubs, rooming houses and camping grounds were jammed. Knowing Mengele was an ardent swimmer and sun-bather, the hunters spent several days combing the white sand beaches. They checked the cabana village at Bristol Beach, the private clubs at St. James Beach, the swank clubs and estates of Plaza Grande, the golf course and polo grounds of Parque Camet, even the outlying beaches frequented mainly by fishermen, lovers and gulls. After dark, they visited restaurants, bars, night clubs and the world's largest gambling casino, next to the luxurious Hotel Provincial. They studied thousands of faces and watched hundreds of wealthy, free-spending Germans. But lean, tanned Dr. Mengele did not appear. Local police soon learned the Israeli agents were in town. Neither the federal government nor provincial authorities wanted a repetition of the embarrassing Eichmann case. And so it was decided that Argentina must beat Israel to the punch this time. More than 100 provincial police officers and agents of the federal intelligence service swarmed into Mar del Plata to keep an eye on the Israelis and, if possible, catch Mengele first. The provincial officers were armed with a warrant authorizing Mengele's arrest for extradition to West Germany. The Bonn government had been requesting his extradition for more than two years, but nothing was done about the request until after he disappeared. Three days after the Mar del Plata manhunt shifted into high gear, four new players entered the game—two Germans, a Russian and an American. The latter two were intelligence agents sent to the scene as "observers" by the U.S. and Soviet embassies in Buenos Aires. The Germans were from the West German War Crimes Office at Ludwigsburg, near Stuttgart. Their orders were to try to bring Mengele back to Germany for trial as a major war criminal. None of the searchers succeeded in catching the elusive Doctor Death, however. Realizing all the commotion must have alerted the Nazi underground to their presence, the Israelis left Mar del Plata as quietly as they had arrived. The Argentine agents and the mysterious observers also departed, apparently convinced Mengele had left Argentina. About a week later, the Israelis appeared in the city of Corumba, Mato Grosso state, in western Brazil near the
28 Hitler's Heirs borders of Paraguay and Bolivia. From members of the small Jewish community there, they learned Mengele still owned an estate outside town. But his mansion and laboratory were closed, his swimming pool was dry, and armed guards patroled the grounds with fierce watchdogs. The agents were particularly interested in Corumba, for Nora Eldoc's last report to the Israeli Foreign Office in Tel Aviv was posted there. A native of Poland, Nora was sent to Auschwitz concentration camp with her family and most of her friends. She was the only survivor of this group. The rest were sent to the gas ovens by Dr. Mengele. The S.S. physician saved Nora as a guinea pig for his "scientific" experiments. Along with hundreds of other Auschwitz inmates, she was sterilized. After the war, she eventually emigrated to Israel and joined the Secret Service branch of the Foreign Office. She dedicated her life to tracking down war criminals—especially Doctor Death. Meanwhile, Mengele had gone to the Argentine. Unlike his former boss, Adolf Eichmann, the doctor didn't have to work for a living. He had a family inheritance, plus a fortune in gold and jewelry "inherited" from his Auschwitz patients. He purchased a small chemical laboratory in Buenos Aires and a villa in the fashionable suburb of Vicente Lopez. As he was handsome, debonair and wealthy, the city's social and international set quickly accepted him. The highest S.S. rank he had held was that of captain and he had successfully avoided military service. But former Nazi colonels, generals and diplomats accepted him as an equal. They realized that his wartime job—chief "medical selector" at the Auschwitz-Birkenau death factories—had been an important one. Of an estimated three million persons who perished at Auschwitz and adjoining Birkenau camps, Mengele personally selected more than one million as fuel for the gas ovens. Besides this impressive work record, Mengele was admired by his fellow fugitives for the amount of loot he had accumulated and the fact that he made no attempt to hide his true identity. In a world of aliases, he continued to use his right name. He was Dr. Josef Mengele in Buenos Aires, just as he was in Auschwitz. He did not resume his medical practice or his experiments on human guinea pigs, though he continued to think of himself as a "racial biologist." He frequently discussed his racial theories with friends, often relating how Stalin had sought to create perfect policemen by crossing Lithuanians with Kirg-
Doctor Death 29 hiz—the first for strength and courage, the second for cruelty, cunning and indifference to human life. Mengele himself would have made a perfect Kirghiz. When the Peron government fell, he left Argentina along with Bormann, Eichmann and other important war criminals who were not sure which way the new political winds would blow. Most of them soon returned to B.A., but Mengele bought his Brazilian estate outside Corumba, installed a swimming pool and a well-equipped laboratory and hired a few former S.S. men as bodyguards. He also retained his Buenos Aires residence and made frequent trips to Argentina to purchase scientific equipment which he hauled home to Corumba on Paraguay River steamers. He was in B.A. when Eichmann was caught. As soon as he heard his former boss was missing, he returned to Brazil. But he was back in the Argentine capital within three weeks after Eichmann was flown to Israel. In June, 1960, Germany repeated its request for Mengele's extradition. Argentine authorities had ignored the request in the past. In the light of the Eichmann case, however, it was decided to ship Doctor Death back to his homeland for trial. A federal judge in Buenos Aires issued an order for Mengele's arrest. Then, before he could be picked up, a newspaper broke the story and the selection specialist was off and running again. Israeli agents soon learned of his estate in Mato Grosso. Nora Eldoc volunteered to go there to locate and identify him. Though she had never forgotten the man who sterilized her and sent her friends and relatives to the Auschwitz crematories, she did not believe he would recognize her after fifteen years. Apparently she was wrong. Despite the years of death and horror, Nora at 48 retained her youthful figure and energy. She looked at least ten years younger. Posing as a tourist, she arrived in Corumba from Rio de Janeiro with a letter of introduction to a wealthy Brazilian family. This family arranged for her to meet other affluent residents of Corumba and she soon was embarked on a merry round of dinners, sightseeing trips and parties. One night at a cocktail party, she heard a guttural German accent and looked up into the cold dark eyes of Doctor Death. Nora's last report to the Israel Secret Service said she had located Mengele. She added that he had invited her on a picnic. She seemed relieved that her long search was over. The courageous woman agent was never heard from again.
Some weeks later, the decomposed body of a woman answering Nora's description was found on a tree-tangled hillside near the Paraguay frontier. Police were unable to link the corpse to Mengele. But Israeli agents were convinced Doctor Death had made one more selection. Born March 19, 1911, Mengele joined the Nazi party about twenty years later as a college student. On graduation from medical school, he entered the bloody ranks of the S.S. Elite Guard and eventually became a concentration camp doctor. He served at several camps in Poland and Germany before being appointed chief death-dispenser at AuschwitzBirkenau in 1943. When trains rolled into the Auschwitz-Birkenau death camps from Europe's occupied countries—France, Belgium, Holland, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Russia and the rest—Mengele was a one-man welcoming committee. He would walk slowly along the lines of sick, hungry, frightened prisoners and point with his thumb or walking stick to left and right. The road to the right led to the Auschwitz labor camps. The road to the left went to the extermination centers where prisoners were slaughtered with Zyklon B gas; bullets in the base of the skull; injections of chloroform, phenol and kerosene in the heart; phosphate bombs; flame-throwers; machine guns and medical experiments. Children under 15, women over 45, men over 50 were automatically ordered "to the left." To save the S.S. guards trouble, all mothers with young children went to the gas chambers irrespective of their ages. Only the able-bodied survived the selections. The very young, the aged, invalid and infirm went to the red brick "bath-houses" with the Zyklon B showers. Depending on his whim of the moment, Mengele might spare as much as a third of a new shipment. Or he might send an entire shipment of 10,000 or more human beings to the gas chambers. A witness at Eichmann's trial testified Mengele sent 1,000 Jewish boys to their deaths simply because they failed to pass a height test. Twins and freaks were his medical hobby. He collected twins, dwarfs, giants, hunchbacks and cripples the way some men collect butterflies. They were used in laboratory experiments made for the Berlin Institute of Racial Biology. His studies of twins were intended to help multiply the master race. From his mad experiments, he hoped to find
Doctor Death 31 the key to double births and use it for the mass production of twin children. He envisioned a weird world where all German mothers had twins and the Third Reich had an endless supply of dwarfs for household servants and docile giants for heavier slave labor. The Jewish hunchbacks and cripples in his collection were supposed to prove the Nazi theory that Jews were "subhumans." Dr. Miklos Nyiszli, Hungarian physician who was picked by Mengele as a laboratory assistant and forced to perform autopsies on the bodies of experiment victims, had this to say of Doctor Death: "He sent millions of people to death merely because, according to a racial theory, they were inferior beings and therefore detrimental to mankind. This same criminal doctor spent many hours beside me, either at his microscopes, his disinfecting ovens and test tubes, or standing with equal patience over the dissecting table, his smock befouled with blood, his bloody hands examining and experimenting like one possessed. "Immediate objective was increased production of the German race. Final objective was production of pure Germans in numbers sufficient to replace the Czechs, Hungarians, Poles, all of whom were condemned to be destroyed." When fresh shipments of prisoners arrived, S.S. guards scoured them for twins, dwarfs and other likely specimens for the Mengele museum of horrors. These were sent to Barracks 14 of Camp F. They were allowed to keep their civilian clothes and received good food, comfortable bunks and adequate facilities for personal hygiene. Then they were moved to the experimental barracks, in the Gypsy Camp near Mengele's laboratory, and subjected to the most thorough physical examinations: Blood tests, x-rays, lumbar punctures, exchanges of blood between twins, comparisons of cranial and body structures. Skulls, noses, ears, mouths, arms, legs, hands, feet and chests were measured and classified. Drawings of heads were made by a prisoner artist. Complete records were kept on each subject, including sketches, charts and a list of individual characteristics. And when all these preliminary measures were finished, the subjects were murdered. Twins died together so it would be possible to perform autopsies on both at the same time. They were given lethal heart injections of chloroform. On one occasion, Mengele selected a hunchbacked Jew and his handsome but crippled sixteen-year-old son. The boy had a deformed right foot. Mengele became very excited, believ-
32 Hitler's Heirs ing the father-son deformities proved his racial theory of Jewish degeneracy. After thorough physical examinations, they were shot through the back of the neck. Mengele read reports on both the live and post mortem examinations. Then he told his assistant: "These bodies must not be cremated. They must be preserved and their skeletons sent to the Anthropological Museum in Berlin." The bodies were cooked in two iron casks of boiling water until the fleshy parts were soft enough to be easily removed from the bones. Some Polish masons who had been working on the crematory furnaces saw the unattended cook pots and smelled the boiling flesh. Thinking the casks contained meat for the camp guards' supper, they fished up some floating pieces of flesh and devoured them. Mengele's laboratory was in the shadow of the crematories. Flames from the chimneys and the open-air pyres of blazing bodies illuminated the lab with a hellish glow and the stench of burning flesh mingled with the smells of blood and chemicals. Here Mengele labored for hours at a time over his dissected corpses and microscopes, oblivious to the screams of the doomed, the curses of guards, the bark of pistols and the chatter of machine guns. At the selections, the handsome physician always greeted new arrivals with a cheerful, detached air. He usually whistled Wagnerian arias as he pointed to left and right. And he helped organize a hundred-piece prisoner orchestra that played Strauss waltzes while selectees were being marched to the gas chambers. He also found time to collect gallstones, which he polished like precious gems, and to enjoy the company of a beautiful mistress, Irma Griese. Irma, then 22, a blue-eyed and bosomy blonde, was the Auschwitz Angel of Death. As cruel as she was lovely, she carried a whip and gun and used both on the inmates of the women's camp she supervised. She often accompanied Mengele on inspection tours of the women's quarter and helped him make gas chamber selections there. When his eye lingered on a young and pretty prisoner, Irma was certain to choose this girl for a trip to the "bathhouses." And yet she could hardly have been jealous. Irma had many other lovers including S.S. officers and prisoners of both sexes. She frequently enjoyed homosexual relations with prisoners and then sent them to their deaths. One of her favorites
Doctor Death 33 was a brunette blovoca (block leader) who survived for a long time before Irma tired of her. The bisexual blonde finally became pregnant and forced a woman surgeon among her charges to perform an abortion. On another occasion, she picked for her lover a tali, swarthy prisoner from Soviet Georgia. The muscular Georgian had been assigned to a male work detail in the women's camp. Calling him into her office, Irma made it clear what she wanted. But he turned her down. Enraged, Irma summoned his girl friend, a pretty Polish teen-ager, and made him watch while she stripped and lashed the terrified youngster. Then she had the Georgian shot and the girl sent to the Auschwitz brothel, from which she eventually graduated to the laboratory of Doctor Death. When not engaged in sex and sadism, Irma spent most of her time grooming herself and practicing seductive gestures before the full-length mirror in her room. She favored black lace lingerie, exotic French perfumes and form-fitting uniforms. Her closets were crammed with exclusive creations from the fashion salons of Paris, Vienna and Berlin. The party gowns, like her other loot, came from women who were not even given time to change to street clothes before being herded into the Auschwitz transports. Irma's favorite costume was a sky-blue jacket and skirt that matched her eyes. She carried her silver-handled whip in one of her gleaming black boots. She had her own dress designer, a Madame Grete who had run a fashion house in Vienna, and as many seamstresses and personal maids as she desired. And she kept them all busy night and day. If thenwork failed to please, they were promptly transferred to the gas chambers. Irma often boasted that she would become a movie star after the war. But the only postwar drama in which she starred was her execution. Guards had to drag her to the hangman's noose. Mengele didn't stay around to share her fate. He had left Auschwitz in December, 1944. As Russian armies pushed into Poland, the selection specialist notified his superiors that he had contracted typhus. He requested transfer to a Berlin hospital and quietly departed from the death camps in a Red Cross ambulance. War crimes investigators later found the Auschwitz Totenbuch (Death Book), which was a damning record of Mengele's fiendish activities. A typical notation: "The Czech section of Auschwitz concentration camp was liquidated this date [Sept. 3, 1944] due to a prevalence of
34 Hitler's Heirs typhus among the prisoners. [Signed] Dr. Mengele, Hauptsturmfuehrer I Lagerazt." In this so-called "delousing operation, "aproximately 10,500 Czech Jews were systematically slaughtered. Mengele also sent thousands of Greek and Italian prisoners to the gas chambers because he decided they were bringing malaria into the camps. On another occasion, he liquidated women's camp C in order to save food. The women were brought to the gas chambers at night, 4000 at a time, in a caravan of 50 trucks, each containing 80 prisoners. It took 11 days to dispose of the camp's 45,000 inmates. While making his rounds of the camp hospital, Mengele often gave patients lethal injections, purposely used incorrect blood types for transfusions and inoculated inmates with disease germs. Besides sterilizing hundreds of women, he left many more crippled and deformed after senseless surgery. He would operate at the slightest provocation, often cutting patients open to poke at their insides or remove a vital part of the human mechanism. Sometimes he would become bored in the middle of an operation and walk away, leaving the patient to bleed to death on the table. But he was extremely solicitious of pregnant women. He would ask them the most intimate questions about their pregnancies and would jot down every detail. He would examine them carefully and thoroughly. During delivery, he would take every precaution, making sure all aseptic principles were observed and that the umbilical cord was properly severed. And when he was certain both mother and baby were doing fine, he would dispatch them to the gas chambers.
THE HEAD HUNTERS
Mengele's counterpart at Buchenwald concentration camp was Dr. Hans Eisele, now 49 and a respected resident of the United Arab Republic. There were no gas chambers at Buchenwald. But Dr. Eisele's patients often wished that there were. Gassing would have been an easy way to die. Dr. Eisele preferred medical torture—vivisection experiments on human annuals. His operating room was a bloodsplattered chamber of horrors in which thousands of men, women and children died. Eugen Kogon, anti-Nazi German who spent six years in Buchenwald and later described his experiences in the book The Theory and Practice of Hell, has this to say of the Buchenwald butcher: "Worst among this [criminal] type of S.S. physician was undoubtedly Dr. Eisele. His accomplishments between 1940 and 1943 probably outdid any of the depravities committed by other S.S. physicians. He too, in order to 'complete his training,' engaged in human vivisection, subsequently killing his victims. "He would abduct them indiscriminately from the camp streets, take them to the out-patients' clinic, and inject them with apomorphine to gloat over the emetic effect. He performed operations and amputations without the slightest reason. He never used anesthesia." In February, 1941, 389 Dutch Jews arrived in Buchenwald. They were not used to the bitter cold of the German winter. Dressed in rags and housed in unheated barracks, many of them became seriously ill. Then Dr. Eisele suddenly decided to bar them from the camp hospital. Those already hospitalized were either given fatal injections or sent back to the barracks to die of the cold. Forty Dutch Jews perished in a few weeks due to lack of medical care. A few months later, Dr. Eisele decided there were too many tuberculosis patients in his hospital. To correct this situation, he got out his hypodermic needle and proceeded methodically through the wards, shooting lethal injections of sodium-evipan into the hearts and bloodstreams of more than 300 men. The good doctor later complained to his colleagues that 35
36 Hitler's Heirs some of the patients had such healthy hearts that two or even three injections were required to stop the beat. Many of Eisele's human guinea pigs came from the camp brothel, where the most attractive female prisoners were sent to satisfy the lusts of S.S. guards and officers. If a girl failed to please a customer, or if she contracted a venereal disease through no fault of her own, she was transferred to the experimental laboratory. Hundreds of girls from the Buchenwald sex stable died under the knives of Eisele and his aides. In a frenzy of senseless sadism, Eisele cut open living bodies to peer and poke at the vital organs; removed livers, lungs, stomach and reproductive organs, and other parts; hacked off arms and legs; injected a wide variety of chemicals into the blood to see what the reaction would be. Few of his patients left the operating room alive. Of those that did, most were crippled, maimed, or missing some important part of their anatomy. Eisele was sent to Buchenwald on graduation from medical school. His S.S. rank was Obrsturmfuehrer (Lieutenant). He was young and inexperienced, but determined to make the Reich Medical Service take notice of him. For a time he collaborated with Dr. Wagner, a camp medical officer who was writing a thesis on tatoo markings. The zealous doctors searched the camp and each fresh shipment of prisoners for tattooed men. Those with the best tattoos were sent to the hospital laboratory, photographed and given fatal injections. A day or two later, their tattooed skin would appear in the "art collection" of the hospital's Pathology Section. Some of the choicest specimens were presented to camp commander Koch and his sluttish wife Use, who used human skin for lamp shades, gloves and other useful and decorative objects. Hundreds of human skins, prepared in different ways, were sent to Berlin at the request of Lieutenant Colonel Enno Lolling, Chief Medical Officer for Concentration Camps. Dr. Lolling, who later rose to the rank of Major-General, was attached to Amt (Office) III D of the S.S. Main Economic and Administrative Office. He had many of the skin specimens made into billfolds and cigar cases, which he presented to other high-ranking S.S. officers at his Oranienburg headquarters. These little gifts made such a hit that Lolling decided to order some even more unusual souvenirs. He wrote his Buchenwald subordinates and asked them to prepare a report on methods of shrinking human heads. Undaunted by this strange request, Drs. Eisele and Wagner
The Head Hunters 37 searched the libraries of nearby Weimar until they found some material on the ancient art of head-shrinking, as practiced by South American Indians and South Seas cannibals. The source material was forwarded to Oranienburg along with several "exhibits"—the heads, shrunken to apple size, of former Buchenwald inmates. Even with directions supplied by the library books, the technique wasn't easy to master. At least thirty prisoners lost their lives, and their heads, before the S.S. doctors learned to imitate aborigine headhunters. Three of the heads were retained at Buchenwald and were found when American troops liberated the camp in 1945. One, the head of a young Pole whose "crime" was having sexual relations with a German girl, was made into a paperweight for the camp commandant. Dr. Eisele was sentenced to death by an American War Crimes Tribunal in 1946, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment and he was released from Landsberg Prison in 1952, receiving a "good conduct" discharge after only seven years behind bars. He also received 4000 marks (about $1000) from the German government, under its compensation law for war prisoners, and a substantial government loan to help him start a private medical practice. As soon as a German denazification court cleared him (a whitewashing process applied to thousands of war criminals) he became a National Health Insurance doctor in Munich. Thus he was assured a substantial state salary in addition to the income received from his private patients. Eisele settled down in the Munich suburb of Pasing. He delivered babies, performed tonsilectomies and hoped the world would forget his medical murders. And the world almost did. Then, in 1958, Buchenwald S.S. Guard Martin Sommer was captured and brought to trial for a series of savage killings. Witnesses described how he whipped, tortured and shot helpless prisoners, strangled them with his bare hands, smashed their skulls with an iron bar. "He was one of the most vicious killers at Buchenwald," one witness said. "But Dr. Eisele killed more people in a week than Sommer did in his entire career." The surprise denunciation of Eisele sent reporters rushing to phone their newspapers. Within hours, the West German press and radio had unearthed the Buchenwald butcher's long-buried past. Newspaper editorials and prominent public officials demanded the doctor's arrest.
Hitler's Heirs Despite all the furor, Bavarian authorities took no action. The Sommer trial ended with a life sentence for Eisele's old pal. The British Medical Association protested against war criminals practicing medicine in West Germany. Liberal German newspapers pointed out that Eisele wasn't the only death doctor who had been reinstated in his profession. Outraged public opinion and political pressures finally forced the Bonn government to move against Eisele. Munich officials were ordered to arrest him. This was done, reluctantly and with apologies, in June, 1958. He was brought into court and charged with performing sterilization and other medical experiments on Buchenwald prisoners. Eisele feigned illness and State Attorney Max von Decker, chief prosecutor of Bavaria, asked that the proceedings be postponed because the doctor was "unfit for trial." Released on bail, Eisele suddenly recovered. He fled from Germany on July 9, 1958, with the help of the Nazi underground and its members in the Bavarian administration. For letting him escape, Dr. von Decker was suspended and fined the trivial sum of 300 marks (about $75). He later was reinstated, despite disclosures that he had withheld evidence against Eisele for at least four years. In 1954, he had received a complaint charging Eisele with killing Buchenwald inmates. The complaint, full of names and dates, was "filed and forgotten." Eisele was shipped to Egypt. He was welcomed by Johannes von Leers, other Nazi exiles and Cairo police, who detained him in the local headquarters of Interpol, the international police organization. While awaiting an extradition hearing, Eisele helped pass the time by calling a press conference at which he declared he was an innocent "victim of Jewish persecution." Egyptian authorities turned down a Bonn request to send him back for trial. They pointed out that Egypt has no extradition treaty with West Germany. Furthermore, they said Egypt's statute of limitations prohibits prosecution for crimes more than ten years old. Free and clear again, Eisele got a government job almost as good as the one he had at home. He is now on the staff of Cairo's largest military hospital. He lives in a large white villa in a fashionable Cairo suburb, where he frequently entertains the ageing von Leers and other Nasser Nazis. Over beer and schnapps, Eisele no longer fears to boast of the "good old days" at Buchenwald. But not too loud, even among friends, for Israel is just over the border and Israeli agents may be outside his door.
The Head Hunters 39 Africa, probably Syria or the Union of South Africa, also is believed to be the home of another notorious Nazi headhunter—Prof. August Hirt, head of the Anatomical Institute of the University of Strasbourg. Assigned to Natzweiler concentration camp early in the war, Hirt and Dr. Prof. Otto Bickenbach, Strasbourg University internist, used prisoners for many murderous experiments, including tests "with poisoned bullets and mustard gas. About 150 prisoners were used for the poison gas tests. Many went blind before they died in agony. But Prof. Hirt is best known for his unique skull collection. In a letter written to S.S. Fuehrer Heinrich Himmler in December, 1941, he explained: "We have large collections of skulls of almost all races and peoples at our disposal. Of the Jewish race, however, only very few specimens of skulls are available . .. "The war in the East now presents us with an opportunity to overcome this deficiency. By procuring the skulls of the Jewish-Bolshevik commisars, who represent the prototype of the repulsive but characteristic subhuman, we have the chance now to obtain scientific material." He said concentration camp doctors would be instructed to measure the skulls of the victims and then, "following the subsequently induced death of the Jew, whose head shall not be damaged, the physician will sever the head from the body and will forward it [to the Strasbourg Anatomical Institute] in a hermetically-sealed tin can." Himmler was delighted. He directed that Hirt "be supplied with everything needed for his research work." Chief supplier was bearded S.S. Col. Wolfram Sievers, "Nazi Bluebeard" who directed both the Institute for Research into Heredity and the Institute for Military Scientific Research. For his "Research," he was hanged as a war criminal. Sievers selected 115 Auschwitz prisoners for the Hirt collection—"79 Jews, 30 Jews, 4 Asiatics and 2 Poles," according to his own report. "Anthropological measurements" and head casts were made before they were murdered. S.S. Capt. Joseph Kramer, the diabolic "Beast of Belsen," told the Nuremberg court that condemned him to death: "Prof. Hirt of the Strasbourg Anatomical Institute told me of the prisoner convoys enroute from Auschwitz to Strasbourg. He said these prisoners were to be killed by poison gas in the gas chamber of the Natzweiler camp, their bodies then to be taken to the Anatomical Institute for his disposal. He gave me a bottle containing about half a pint of salts—I think they were cyanide salts—and told me the approximate dosage I
Hitler's Heirs would have to use to poison those arriving from Auschwitz. "Early in August, 1943, I received eighty inmates who were to be killed with the gas Hirt had given me. One night I went to the gas chamber in a small van with about fifteen women. I told the women they had to go into the chamber to be disinfected. "With the help of a few S.S. men, I stripped the women completely and shoved them into the gas chamber when they were stark naked. When the door closed, they began to scream. I introduced a certain amount of salt through a tube . . . and observed through a peephole what happened inside the room. "The women breathed for about half a minute before they fell to the floor. After I turned on the ventilation, I opened the door. I found the women lying lifeless on the floor and they were covered with excrements," Hirt's laboratory assistant, Henry Herypierre, a French war prisoner, told the Nuremberg court: "The first shipment we received was the bodies of thirty women . . . These bodies arrived still warm. The eyes were wide open and shining. They were red and bloodshot and popping from their sockets. There were also traces of blood about the nose and mouth. No rigor mortis was evident." Under Hirt's direction, Herypierre pickled the bodies in alcohol. The professor warned his assistant: "Keep your trap shut or you'll be one of them." As American and French troops neared Strasbourg, Hirt ordered his assistants to chop up the bodies and burn them in the crematory along with the severed heads that lined bis laboratory shelves. The heads were preserved in jars filled with a 55 per-cent solution of alcohol. Other shelves contained skulls that had been stripped of their flesh and hair, cleaned and polished to a gleaming whiteness. Most of this ghoulish collection was disposed of before the Allied forces arrived, but a few bodies were left in a storeroom. Units of the U.S. Seventh Army and French 2nd Armored Division found the headless corpses and noted that the left testicle had been removed from some of the male victims, presumably for another experiment by the mad professor. Hirt left his laboratory a day or two before the Seventh Army reached Strasbourg. His final boast to his assistants was that "the Americans will never take me alive." And they never did. Like Eisele, Mengele and many other Nazi mass murderers, Hirt took the underground route to freedom. Dr. Lolling, medical boss of the concentration camps, also disappeared without a trace, as did many of the doctors who served under him.
The Head Hunters 41 Dr. Bickenbach, the Strasbourg internist who helped Prof. Hirt with his poison gas experiments and served as camp physician at Natzweiler and Struthof hell-holes, is still alive and practicing internal medicine in Germany.
MORE MEDICAL MURDERERS
Dr. Edwin Katzenellenbogen, former member of the Harvard Medical School faculty. Sentenced to life imprisonment at Nuremberg at the second Doctors' Trial, he is now free. In November, 1959, democratic Germans were shocked to discover that a wanted war criminal was chief medical adviser to several courts in the northern state of SchleswigHolstein. He was Professor Dr. Werner Heyde, a former S.S. officer and one of the top officials in the Nazi euthanasia program. Under this program, some 70,000 mentally ill persons were killed in insane asylums all over Germany. The euthanasia project also served as a convenient cover for murdering thousands of concentration camp inmates, Gentiles as well as Jews, on the basis of false insanity certificates. Dr. Heyde worked directly under S.S. Major General Dr. Karl Brandt, Reich Commissioner for Health and Sanitation, also Hitler's personal physician. Heyde was placed in charge of a three-man commission of "psychiatrists" that toured Germany's prison camps, selecting victims for the Euthanasia Institutes. The other two members of the panel were Dr. Fritz Mennecke and Dr. Paul Nitsche. . At Buchenwald, Dachau and the other German camps, the trio became known as "the traveling circus." Seated at a table in the open or in the camp commandant's office, the doctors would certify prisoners insane because of their religious, political or criminal backgrounds. Prostitutes, pickpockets, leftwing politicians, Jewish and Catholic leaders all were selected for extermination without even the most elementary mental examinations. The commission used a special form—14 F 13—for the falsified certificates of lunacy. Each certificate was an automatic death sentence. Later, Nazi leaders decided to dispense with the phoney "sanity hearings." It was simpler and faster to set up gassing facilities in the camps themselves, instead of transporting prisoners to the Euthanasia Institutes. Dr. Heyde's commission colleagues and boss all were 42
"You have placed the mark of Cain on my forehead. Any physician who committed the crimes I am charged with deserves to be killed."
More Medical Murderers 43 sentenced to death for their crimes. Dr. Brandt was hanged on June 2, 1948. Dr. Nitsche was executed at Dresden, East Germany. Dr. Mennecke died in prison in May, 1947, "while awaiting execution. But Heyde escaped from Allied custody in 1947, while awaiting trial, with the help of the Nazi underground. A warrant was issued for his arrest. Allied investigators searched for him throughout Germany, without success. His Nazi pals gave him forged identity papers and got him a job as gardener-caretaker on an estate in Ploen, Holstein. His wife, living in Munich, had him declared legally dead. Between 1952 and 1959, she collected a widow's pension of nearly 65,000 DM (about $16,000). After five years in hiding, Heyde surfaced again as Dr. Fritz Sawade. Armed with phony credentials, including a medical diploma, he went to work as a doctor for the city of Flensburg. With the help of Nazis in high government offices, he advanced rapidly to the positions of medical adviser and medical investigator for Flensburg courts, the Schleswig-Holstein State Court for Social Welfare Disputes and the State Insurance Administration. Many state and city officials knew his real identity. But nothing was done about it until a newspaper broke the story, setting off an investigation by the federal government. On November 5, 1959, state authorities finally decided to arrest Heyde-Sawade. Tipped off to their plans, he disappeared. The underground offered to send him to Egypt and actually made reservations for his flight. But Heyde was tired of running. On November 11, he surrendered in Frankfurt. The Heyde case blew up a storm of indignation. The democratic press demanded to know not only which SchleswigHolstein officials had been harboring him all those years but also how many other medical monsters were back in practice. The Bonn government promised to investigate the first question. It gave no satisfactory answer to the second. The truth, which Bonn was afraid to reveal, is that literally hundreds of doctors who took part in the euthanasia program, the murderous medical experiments and the scientific slaughter of millions of concentration camp prisoners, are still practicing medicine. These doctors gave prisoners injections of poisons and lethal doses of typhus, jaundice, malaria and other diseases. They tried out untested drugs and chemicals on their human guinea
44 Hitler's Heirs pigs. They cut people open, chopped off arms and legs, sterilized and mutilated hundreds of thousands. Their "patients" were placed in pressure chambers for highaltitude tests that ended when they stopped breathing. They were stuffed full of soup until their stomachs burst. They were submerged in icy water and boiling water for temperature experiments. They were left outdoors naked in winter weather to see how long it would take for them to freeze. Poison bullets, mustard gas, germ warfare and other secret weapons were tried out on them. The "rabbit girls" of Ravensbrueck were sterilized, given gas gangrene wounds, subjected to bone-grafting experiments that maimed and crippled them and sex organ experiments that robbed them of their womanhood. Dr. Herta Oberhauser, only woman defendant at the Nuremberg Doctors' Trials, was sentenced to twenty years for her Ravensbrueck experiments. Released in 1952, she returned to private practice in Schleswig-Holstein until newspaper publicity forced state officials to cancel her license in 1960. She promptly sued for its return. The Heyde case and the capture of Adolf Eichmann in Argentina six months later promoted West Germany to start rounding up Nazi war criminals, including some of the most murderous medics. Dr. Heyde's wartime assistant, Dr. Friedrich Tillman, was arrested in July, 1960, at Dortmund, where he had been running a hostel for teen-age miners since the end of the war. He was accused of complicity in the murders of 60,000 mental patients. Incredible as it seems, a man now charged with 60,000 murders bad been living openly, under his real name, in Germany for 15 years before he was listed as a war criminal. Dr. Johann Kremer, a colleague of the bloodthirsty Dr. Mengele, was another physician who was caught in the Bonn drive to sweep skeletons out of the medical closets. Sentenced to death for his Auschwitz crimes, Kremer later was pardoned and released from a Polish prison in 1958. He returned to medical practice in Germany but was arrested in Muenster on new charges of having "aided and abetted the murders of camp prisoners by participating in medical selections for the gas chambers." He drew a sevenyear prison term. Dr. Gottfried Matthes, of the euthanasia exterminators, was convicted by a West German court of murdering mentally retarded children. His life sentence was confirmed in April, 1961.
More Medical Murderers 45 Dr. Gustav Ortmann, an S.S. doctor at Sachsenbausen Concentration Camp, now practices in the town of Kippenheim, Baden-Wuerttemberg. Dr. Hans Bodo Gorgasz, director of the infamous Hadamar Sanatorium where some 10,000 persons were put to death, was sentenced to death at Nuremberg but beat the gallows and was set free on February 6, 1958. Refused permission to practice medicine in Frankfurt, he obtained a laboratory job in private industry. Dr. Werner Catel was a practicing pediatrician in Kiel and head of the Pediatrics Department of Kiel University's Medical College when his part in Hitler's euthanasia program was exposed. He quit his university post, gave up his lucrative practice and moved to Hamburg. The head of Hamburg's Medical Department demanded an investigation of Catel and twelve other doctors accused of criminal medical activities in the Hitler era. Dr. Hans Glatzel, another euthanasia expert, was a Professor of Medicine in Flensburg University when the Heyde scandal broke. An old friend of Heyde, Dr. Glatzel quietly left town and went to Dusseldorf, where he now runs the food physiology department of Max-Planck Institute. Dr. Karl Clauberg, of Ravensbrueck and Auschwitz fame, received a hero's welcome when he returned from a Russian POW camp in 1955. A group of former S.S. officers threw a banquet in his honor. Television and radio announcers covered his homecoming and fought to interview him. Cheering crowds showered him with gifts of food, drink, cigars, even baby clothes. What did Clauberg do to deserve all this idolation? He tortured and maimed thousands of wretched girls for almost five full years. As early as May 29, 1941, the Silesian gynecologist volunteered to serve the S.S. as a sterilization specialist. In July, 1942, Himmler sent him to Ravensbrueck to find out how long it would take to sterilize 1000 Jewish females. A year later, after horrible experiments on thousands of girls and women, Clauberg submitted this reply to Himmler's question: "An appropriately trained physician, using appropriate equipment and perhaps ten assistants, can very probably handle several hundred women a day if not, indeed, one thousand." Clauberg's method was the injection of chemical irritants into the uterus. X-ray photographs made during the Ravens-
brueck tests showed that his injections "penetrated to the end of the ovarian duct, in several cases even to the abdominal cavity." To work out "refinements" in his technique, he had 300 women transferred from Ravensbrueck to Auschwitz. Those that survived his experiments were subsequently gassed. All the facilities of Auschwitz and Birkenau were made available to Clauberg for his "experiments on humans and animals." Besides the use of chemical injections, Clauberg tried sterilizing women with X-rays and electricity. Metal plates were placed on a patient's abdomen and back. The electric current was directed between the plates, passing through the woman's body and ovaries. Serious burns resulted, often followed by cancer. Clauberg, who reached the S.S. rank of Major, today runs a gynecological clinic in West Germany. He started it with a government loan and the 6,000-DM compensation he received as a POW returnee. His closest colleague at Auschwitz and Ravensbrueck was Dr. Horst Schumann of the Graefeneck Euthanasia Institute. In 1941, Schumann forced several hundred Auschwitz males, aged 20 to 24, to expose their sexual organs to X-rays for fifteen minutes. Then they were sent back to work. Those who could not keep up the pace, due to burns and pain, were sent to the gas chambers. Two to four weeks later, the rest were castrated so their testicles could be dissected and examined under a microscope. Schumann later perfected his castration technique to the point where he could perform one such operation every six or seven minutes. He also sterilized hundreds of Jewish and Gypsy females. Along with many other Nazi doctors, Schumann disappeared after the war. His present whereabouts are unknown. But investigators won't be surprised if they find him practicing medicine in Germany. Herta Oberhauser was one of several doctors who worked for Clauberg and Schumann at Ravensbrueck and Auschwitz. Another was Dr. Wladyslas Dering. When witnesses mentioned his name at the 1947 Doctor's Trial, Dr. Dering was tending Polish troops at Huntingdon Military Hospital in England. He was arrested and lodged in Brixton Prison pending an extradition hearing. Auschwitz witnesses were brought to England, but failed to identify him. Extradition to Poland was refused. Dering now runs a hospital in British Somaliland. Dr. Adolf Pokorny, a Lieutenant Colonel in the S.S. med-
More Medical Murderers 47 ical service, has built a thriving medical practice in West Germany since his acquittal at Nuremberg. Pokorny once wrote Himmler: "The enemy must not only be conquered but exterminated." A skin and venereal disease specialist, Pokorny believed the plant Calladium Seguinem would induce lasting sterility. He could hardly wait to try it out on concentration camp inmates. In another letter to the Reichsfuehrer S.S., he said: "The thought that the 3 million Bolsheviks now in German captivity could be sterilized, so that they would be available for work but precluded from propagation, opens up the most far-reaching prospectives." The only difficulty was that Calladium Seguinem would not grow in Germany, not even in hothouses. Some of the most gruesome Nazi medical experiments were performed on behalf of the Luftwaffe. Major General Oskar Schroeder, chief of the Luftwaffe Medical Service, took part in high-altitude decompression tests in which "the victims literally exploded like deepsea fish suddenly brought to the surface," in the words of an eyewitness. Sentenced to life imprisonment at Nuremberg, Dr. Schroeder is now a free man in Germany. So is former Major General Hippke, also of the Luftwaffe Medical Service. These two generals supervised the experiments of Dr. Sigmund Rascher, a Luftwaffe Captain and S.S. Lieutenant. For his altitude tests, an Air Force decompression chamber was shipped to Dachau. It contained instruments for measuring air pressure, temperature and altitude and their effects on the test patient, referred to by Dr. Rascher as "TP." Heart action was measured by an electrocardiograph. As soon as the patient died, an autopsy was conducted. On one occasion, Rascher discovered the heart of an autopsy victim was still beating. He therefore ordered a whole series of killings to find out how long the heart beats after death. Rascher also conducted experiments designed to prove how long fliers can remain alive after crashing in icy seas. Patients were immersed in ice-cold water until they grew stiff and forced to remain outdoors overnight, without any clothes, in below-zero temperatures. At Himmler's suggestion, Rascher tried warming severelychilled men with naked women. Several girls were brought from Ravensbrueck for this purpose. Rascher reported to Himmler in detail how patients were revived by the warmth of human bodies and performed sexual intercourse. He also discovered that patients sandwiched between two
naked women did not recover as fast as with one woman. "I attribute this to the fact that in warming by means of one woman personal inhibitions are avoided and the woman clings more closely to the chilled person," Rascher wrote. The girls used for warming experiments were classified as prostitutes. But one of them didn't suit Rascher. He advised his superior officers: "One of the women assigned showed impeccably Nordic racial characteristics . . . I asked the girl why she had volunteered for brothel service and she replied, 'To get out of the concentration camp.' When I objected that it was shameful to volunteer as a brothel girl, I was advised, 'Better half a year in a brothel than half a year in the concentration camp.' "My racialconscience is outraged by the prospect of exposing to racially inferior concentration camp elements a girl who is outwardly pure Nordic . . . For this reason I decline to use this girl for my experimental purposes." When word of the warming experiments reached Berlin, Air Force and S.S. generals, Nazi medical chiefs and other top brass began dropping in at Rascher's Dachau laboratory to watch the show. In a secret report sent to Himmler on February 12, 1942, Rascher noted: "The TPs were chilled in the familiar way—dressed or undressed—in cold water at various temperatures . . . Removal from the water took place at a rectal temperature of 86 degrees. "In eight cases the test persons were placed between two naked women on a wide bed. The women were instructed to snuggle up to the chilled person as closely as possible. The three persons were then covered with blankets . . . "Once the TPs regained consciousness, they never lost it again, quickly grasping their situation and nestling close to the naked bodies of the women. The rise of body temperature then proceeded at approximately the same speed as with TPs warmed by being swathed in blankets . . . An exception was formed by four test persons who practiced sexual intercourse between 86 and 89.5 degrees. In these persons, after coitus, a very swift temperature rise ensued, comparable to that achieved by means of a hot-water bath." Rascher was a favorite of Himmler, who congratulated him on hearing a report that Frau Rascher had given birth to three children after reaching the age of 48. Later, when Himmler learned the Rashers had kidnapped the children, he was so outraged that he had them both executed. Though Rascher was not around to stand trial at Nurem-
More Medical Murderers 49 berg, several of his superiors were. Dr. Siegfried Ruff and Dr. Hans Wolfgang Romberg, both attached to the German Experimental Institute for Aviation, were acquitted for "insufficient evidence" at the first Doctors' Trial. Ruff, a Luftwaffe Major, was chief of the institute's Department of Aviation Medicine. Romberg was his deputy. Witnesses testified both Ruff and Romberg had taken part in the Dachau "survival" experiments. Describing these experiments, a Dachau inmate who worked in Rascher's office said: "I have personally seen through the observation window of the decompression chamber when a prisoner inside would stand a vacuum until his lungs ruptured . . . They would go mad and pull out their hair in an effort to relieve the pressure. They would tear their heads and faces with their fingers and nails in an attempt to maim themselves in their madness. They would beat the walls with their hands and heads and scream in an effort to relieve pressure on their eardrums. These cases usually ended in death." Dr. Ruff told the court he had no "legal misgivings" about the experiments because Himmler had sanctioned them. Today he heads the Institute of Aviation Medicine at Bad Gotesberg, near Bonn. And his course at Bonn University, where he is a Professor of Aviation Medicine, is aptly entitled "Aviation-Medical Experiments."
The strong men, the masters . . . regain the pure conscience of a beast of prey; monsters filled with joy, they can return from a fearful succession of murder, arson, rape and torture with the same contentment in their souls as if they had indulged in some student rag. . . . How can one fail to perceive, deep down in all noble races, rapacity; the splendid blond beast that stalks its prey and prowls in search of victory? Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (1844-1900) No matter how many times a slaughterhouse is cleaned, it still smells like a slaughterhouse. And so it was with the headquarters of S.S. butcher Oskar Dirlewanger. No amount of soaping or scrubbing could erase the stench of blood and death. Dirlewanger had many offices in eastern Poland and White Russia. Sometimes he stayed in cities like Warsaw, Bialystok, Minsk or Smolensk. But he preferred the small towns and villages where there were no higher-ranking officers, no occupation officials to observe his activities. In these primitive surroundings, he could give free rein to his demoniac lusts. Wherever he set up his field headquarters—town hall, villa or farm house—the smell of blood soon tainted the air. And superstitious peasants swore that, where he passed, the air never was clean again. He usually chose a large brick or stone building with thick walls and a basement. He used the basement as a "rumpus room" where nightly entertainments were staged for the amusement of his junior officers and friends. These orgies were slightly different than those enjoyed by most other conquering heroes, even the most lecherous. Like Theodor Dannecker in Paris, Dirlewanger would select the prettiest girls in a lineup of villagers. He also would pick out the most handsome boys. Singly or in pairs, the girls were brought to his basement den at night. Two apelike soldiers, brutes specially trained for the Dirlewanger Circus, snapped handcuffs on the victims' wrists. The steel bracelets were chained to a wooden post in the center of the floor or to a wall bracket. When the girls were in place, their clothes were ripped off. 50
The Monsters 51 At a signal from Dirlewanger, a phonograph began blaring Strauss waltzes. Then, as the guests watched by the light of lanterns and candles, the soldiers began slashing the girls' naked flesh to ribbons with bullwhips. Dirlwanger himself often took a hand in the festivities. When the girls' screams stopped and they slumped unconscious, they were revived with buckets of cold water. The show went on until they no longer could be revived. When he tired of the whip, Dirlewanger often amused himself by giving girls fatal injections of strychnine or by forcing steel rods inside their bodies until they died of internal hemorrhages. An S.S. investigating officer who had tried to curtail Dirlewanger's diversions testified at Nuremberg in 1959. He said Dirlewanger and his crew "made 'scientific experiments' by stripping young girls and injecting them with strychnine and other poisons. After watching them die in agony, they would order soldiers to cut up the bodies into small pieces, mix them with horse meat and boil them into soap." Dirlewanger personally murdered hundreds of Jewish, Polish and White Russian girls. He killed most of them before audiences of S.S. officers who shared his perversions. But wben he killed boys, he preferred privacy. A homosexual, he forced his male victims to commit unnatural acts before putting them to death. He often slept with a naked corpse under his bed. A graduate of German universities and prisons, he rated the title "Herr Doktor" because of a doctorate in philosophy or literature. Despite his educational background, he became a convicted criminal, sex pervert and habitual drunk. He was in prison when an old Bavarian buddy, Lieutenant Gen. Gottlob Berger, head of the S.S. Main Office, called on him to serve his country. Dirlewanger was given the S.S. rank of captain and assigned to the office in charge of concentration camps. After a brief training period, he was sent to the Lublin area of Poland as commandant of the Jewish labor camp at Dzika. He later became commander of Belzec extermination camp, where 600,000 Jews were gassed to death. Personally, Dirlewanger didn't approve of the gas vans. He preferred his own murder methods. Gas was too quick and bloodless. When the first vans were installed, he must have felt like a Murder Inc. specialist who has been replaced by a machine. But it wasn't long until his peculiar talents were put to use on a vast and terrible scale.
Polish partisans were harrassing German troops in the Lublin region. A special "anti -partisan command" was organized, with Dirlewanger at its head. His unit was one of the first of the Einsatzgruppe (Action Group) squads formed to wipe out civilian resistance in occupied territories. Einsatzgruppe duties included shooting partisans, keeping captive populations in line and slaughtering Jews and Slavs. The favorite method for dealing with all emergencies, and nearly all non-emergencies, can be summed up in a single word: Massacre. In the Russian campaign, there were four Action Groups (A,B,C and D), each consisting of four Einsatzcommandos (Action Commands) and several Sonderkommandos (Special Commands). Theoretically, each Einsatzgruppe was attached to and under the command of an Army Group. In actual practice, however, the Action Groups took orders only from the Reich Security Main Office in Berlin. Each Einsatzgruppe commander was a high-ranking police official attached either to Kripo (Criminal Police), Gestapo or the S.D. security service. Their subordinate officers came from the S.S. and the Nazi police divisions. Enlisted men were recruited from the S.S., Waffen S.S., Gestapo, local police in occupied countries and local Fascist militia. The latter included Croatians, Estonians, Latvians, Lithuanians and Ukrainians. German prisons also provided officers and troops for the Einsatzgruppen and their far-flung Kommandos. Promoted to major for his outstanding work in butchering Jews and Polish partisans, Dirlewanger was sent to Russia as chief of what was to become the most ferocious of all Einsatz units. His Einsatzkommando Dirlewanger started as a battalion, then became a regiment and finally grew to a full brigade. Nearly all its officers were hardened criminals, personally selected by Dirlewanger from the penal institutions where he had served time. In the Reich Security Main Office, this group of pen pals was known as Dirlewanger's Poachers. An office joke, it referred to the rule that only minor offenders, such as poachers of illegal game, could be released from prison for Einsatzgruppe service. Dirlewanger's "poachers" were convicted sex degenerates, rapists, thieves and murderers. These "splendid blond beasts'' raged across East Europe from Warsaw to the gates of Moscow with a fury unmatched since Attila the Hun ravaged those parts 1500 years before.
The Monsters 53 And as Attila was remembered as the Scourge of God, Dirlewanger became known as the Scourge of the Devil. The world was outraged by the Nazi annihilations of Lidice and Oradour-sur-Glane. But the outside world did not realize Dirlewanger and his merry men were responsible for many similar massacres all over eastern Poland and White Russia. They would surround a village, roundup all the inhabitants, select the ones they wanted for private amusements and shoot all the rest. Said a Nuremberg witness: "It was a practice of Dirlewanger's brigade to seize villages, shut the inhabitants in barns and houses, set the buildings afire and shoot down the living torches when they tried to escape." As the Nazi Commissioner General for White Russia, Wilhelm Kube was no stranger to death, destruction and cruelty. But Dirlewanger's excesses turned his stomach. On June 3, 1943, Kube filed a complaint with the East Ministry. It stated in part: "To bury seriously wounded people alive, who worked their way out of the graves again, is such a base and filthy act that this incident as such should be reported to the Fuehrer and the Reich Marshal." Kube's deputy and successor, S.S. Lieutenant General Curt von Gottberg, filed a similar report two days later. He noted that "the Battalion Dirlewanger especially has a reputation for destroying many human lives." Heinrich Lohse, Reich Commissioner for the Eastern Territories, backed up Kube's protest with his own letter to the East Ministry, stating: "The fact that the Jews receive special treatment requires no further discussion. It seems hardly credible, however, that incidents have occurred like those mentioned in the report by the Commissioner General, dated June 1, 1943. What is Katyn [the massacre of 10,000 Polish prisoners] compared to that? "Just imagine the enemy finding out about such incidents and making capital of them! Such propaganda would probably remain ineffective only because those who hear and read it would not believe it . . . It is possible for cruelties to be avoided and for those liquidated to be buried. I myself do not think that locking up men and women and children in barns and then setting fire to the latter is a suitable method for combatting partisans, even if one wishes to exterminate the population. This is not worthy of the German cause and damages our reputation." In reply to these and other complaints about the Dirlewange
54 Hitler's Heirs Poachers, General Gottlob Berger defended his sadistic pal to Reichsfuehrer S.S. Himmler. "A savage country cannot be governed in a 'decent manner,' " he wrote, "the Sonderkommando policy to 'shoot two Poles too many rather than one too few' is right." Berger was still in charge of S.S. Headquarters, but by this time he also was Himmler's personal liaison officer with Alfred Rosenberg's Ministry for Occupied Eastern Territories. He was chief of the East Ministry's political police staff. At his suggestion, Himmler not only ignored the mounting criticism of Dirlewanger but actually promoted the drunken degenerate to colonel and increased his extermination force to regimental strength. Later, after wiping more villages off the map and butchering their residents, he was awarded the Iron Cross with Diamonds and elevated to the rank of brigadier general. The Dirlewanger unit at first was attached to Einsatzgruppe B, headed at the time by S.S. Major General Erich Naumann. Though Naumann certainly was no saint, many of the crimes for which he was executed in Landsberg Prison on June 8, 1951, were committed by the Dirlewanger Poachers. Roaming an area half the size of Western Europe, Dirlewanger and his followers took an estimated two million lives. This estimate probably is too low, but there are no conclusive figures available for his murder toll. In a summary of operations for one four-month period (August, September, October and November, 1942) Dirlewanger reported 1337 "bandits" killed; 737 prisoners immediately executed; 7828 prisoners shot after questioning; 14,257 "accomplices and suspects" shot, and 363,211 Jews executed. Nearly 400,000 human lives snuffed out in just four months! An eyewitness account of one incident during this period was given at the Eichmann trial. The witness, Mrs. Rivka Yosilevska, was so overcome by emotion when she recalled the horrors of a Dirlewanger "action" that she suffered a heart attack. When she recovered, she insisted on telling the court her story. Mrs. Yosilevska was shot in the head and left in a corpsefilled grave after a Dirlewanger Battalion raid on a small town near Pinsk in White Russia. "All the Jews were assembled in the town square," she said. "We were told we could ransom our lives with money and jewelry. But we had nothing to hand over. The Nazis already had taken everything. "We were held under guard for 24 hours and then the ghetto gates opened and a large truck appeared. Those for
The Monsters 55 whom there was no room in the truck were ordered to run after it. I had my daughter in my arms and I ran. Some mothers tried to carry two or three children and run. When they fell, they were shot. "When we reached our destination, the people from the truck were undressed. All my family was there undressed and lined up. We were hoping this would be the only torture. There was a kind of little hill and at its foot there was a trench. We were ordered to the top of the hill and four devils shot us. "They were S.S. men. They were emissaries of the devil and the angel of death. On the way there my daughter said to me, 'Mother, why do you make me wear my sabbath dress when we are being taken to be shot?' Near the grave she said: 'Mother, let's run.' Some young people did try to run and were shot on the spot. We were anxious to get it over. The suffering of the children was difficult. We wanted to end their torture. "We were already undressed and we were driven up to the grave. My father did not want to undress. He remained in his underwear, but the garments were torn from his body and he was shot. Then they shot my mother. "They shot my father's mother—she was 80 years old and she had two children in her arms. My father's sister also was shot with babies in her arms. "My younger sister wanted to live. She went up to the Germans and asked to be spared, standing there naked. The Germans shot her. Then it was my turn. "I held my child in my arms. 'Whom shall I shoot first?' asked the German. I did not answer. He took the child from my arms. She cried and was shot. He aimed at me. I held onto my hair and turned my head around. I heard a shot but I continued to stand. He turned my head back and ordered me to watch. He shot at me. I fell." At this point, Mrs. Yosilevska put her hand to the left side of her head and showed the court the scar left by a German bullet as it grazed her head. "I fell into the grave," she continued. "I thought that maybe I am not alive but what I am feeling is something after death. People were falling on top of me. I moved and I felt alive. I heard more shots and prayed for another bullet to put an end to my suffering. "I felt I was choking. I felt I was climbing toward the top of the grave. 1 felt bodies or people pulling at me, pulling me down. With my last strength, I came to the top of the grave. So many bodies were lying there, not all of them dead but in their last suffering. Chidren were crying 'mother' or 'father.'" The Court: "Were the Germans still there?"
Hitler's Heirs "No. No one was there. I was naked and covered with blood. I came out of the grave and searched among the dead for my little girl. I called to her: 'Merkele, Merkele.' But all the children were covered with blood and I could not find her. "I saw two women standing. I told them who I was and then heard a voice from among the corpses. It was a woman's voice and she said 'Help pull me out; I am alive.' We pulled her out. The dying people held onto her and bit her. "We were thinking how to escape. We were there all night, listening to the cries and the screams. Then we saw mounted Germans. They ordered that all the corpses be heaped up with shovels. Among them were many still alive. "Children got up from the corpses and I sat in a field with the children. The Germans came and killed the children, who were almost dead anyway. But they did not approach me. The Rothenberg woman—the one we pulled out of the grave—was shot again. Then the Germans left. "There were four of us left. We went onto the top of the grave, envying those who were dead already. I prayed for death. I prayed that the grave would open and swallow me. Blood was spurting from the grave like a spring of water. Whenever I pass a spring today I remember that. "I was digging with my fingernails, trying to join the dead. The grave would not open. I did not have enough strength. I cried out the name of my father and mother and I said: 'Why didn't they kill me? Why was I spared?' "I remained there stretched out on the grave three days and three nights. After three days some herdsmen drove thencows onto the fields and they began throwing stones at me. They didn't know if I was dead or mad. Then a farmer went by and he took pity on me. He fed me and helped me to join a group of Jews in the forest. I stayed there until after the war." When the Red Army drove the Germans out of Russia, Dirlewanger retreated to Warsaw. The Polish towns and villages in his path received the same treatment as those in. devastated White Russia. In Warsaw, he helped smash the 1944 uprising. Then, as Russian tanks rumbled into the Polish capital, he pulled his brigade out and headed back to Germany. Meanwhile, General Berger was busy supervising the roundups of Jews in Denmark and the eastern Territories. He became Military Commander in Czechoslovakia, then returned to Berlin as Himmler's chief deputy for Prisoner of War Affairs. In 1944 and early 1945, he moved large bodies of Allied
The Monsters SI prisoners from camps in Poland, Hungary and Czechoslovakia to detention centers in Germany. The prisoners were forced to march day and night, through rain and snow, with little or no clothing. They received no decent food or medical care. Stragglers were shot or left to die by the wayside. Thousands of prisoners perished on these cross-country hikes. To facilitate the war prison transfers, Berger sent Dirlewanger to clean out some of the Polish camps. He did his job so thoroughly that few prisoners from these camps ever reached their destination. Berger also destroyed Red Cross food parcels for war prisoners and prevented Swiss Red Cross officials from inspecting the camps. One of Himmler's "twelve apostles," Berger was arrested after the war and brought to trial before an American war crimes tribunal at Nuremberg in 1948. Convicted of mass murder, ill-treatment of war prisoners and persecution of nonGermans, he was sentenced to twenty-five years in prison on April 14, 1949. His sentence was commuted to ten years on January 31, 1951, and he was turned loose a year later. He is now living in his native Bavaria and may still be in touch with his perverted protegee. Dirlewanger vanished when the Allies occupied Germany. He joined the rush to Argentina and hid out in Patagonia for several years. Recently, the West German Office for Prosecution of War Crimes announced that he is dead. No proof of his death was offered, however. Other investigative sources believe he is still alive. On September 29, 1960, the Israeli Foreign Ministry at Jerusalem released a list of twenty-three Nazi war criminals who were living in the United Arab Republic. The information included full names of most of the twenty-three; Arab aliases, if any; former Nazi titles and present occupations. Down near the end of the list was a single last name: "Dirlewanger." Most of the officers and enlisted men who served under Dirlewanger also escaped punishment. Today, they are scattered all over Germany, Austria, South America and the U.A.R. While Dirlewanger would be the likely candidate to head a Nietzsche Society of Splendid Beasts and Joyful Monsters, no discussion of Nazi monsters would be complete without mention of his two pals, Fritz Gebauer and Gustav Willhaus. S.S. Captain Gebauer was one of the first commanders of Janow concentration camp, named for its location in Janowska
58 Hitler's Heirs Street, Lwow. Willhaus was his deputy and successor. Jews from the Lwow region were sent to Janow camp for processing before being shipped to Belzec extermination camp. Gebauer and Willhaus first met Dirlewanger when he was Belzec commandant. Though most of their prisoners were scheduled for liquidation at Janow, Gebauer and Willhaus decided not to let Dirlewanger have all the fun. They organized their own murder games. The sport proved so popular that a special work squad was detailed to burn the many corpses. Gebauer enjoyed strangling women and children with his bare hands. During the long winter months, he stuck prisoners in barrels of water and left them there, tied hand and foot, until they froze to death. Not to be outdone, Willhaus arranged shooting matches at which the targets were Jewish babies. The children were tossed into the air so Willhaus could show off his marksmanship, to the applause of his wife and daughters. Murder became so monotonous at Janow that the camp commanders encouraged their staff to think up some original methods. An S.S. man named Wepke bet he could cut a boy in half with a single axe stroke. He won the bet by cleaving a ten-year-old child in two. After he became camp commandant, Willhaus kept up his target practice. He frequently took pot shots at prisoners from his office balcony and the front porch of his home. On Hitler's 54th birthday, he shot 54 prisoners. The following year, his wife helped him celebrate Der Fuehrer's birthday. Between them, they polished off 55 men, women and children. A music lover, Willhaus organized a camp orchestra and composed a special song, "Tango of Death." The orchestra played while prisoners were marched to the firing squads and the death trains for Belzec. When Janow was disbanded, all members of the prisoner orchestra were executed. Gebauer, Willhaus and their equally murderous assistants disappeared after the war. Willhaus and his family are believed to be living in Syria, presumably still laughing over the fun and games at Janow. In June, 1960, the Israeli Foreign Ministry sent a list of 325 "most wanted" war criminals to the West German war crimes offices in Ludwigsburg. High on the list were the names of Gustav Willhaus, his wife Ottilia and Fritz Gebauer.
BUSHEL OF EYEBALLS
When Vidkun Quisling sold out Norway to the Nazis, he set the pattern for other ambitious and ruthless men all over Europe. Quisling's name became a dictionary synonym for traitor. But some of the lesser-known Quislings were just as bad or v/orse. Like hyenas following the blood spoor of man-eating tigers, they grew fat on the death and destruction caused by Hitler's goose-stepping legions and extermination squads. And sometimes the hyenas became more vicious than the tigers. Ante Pavelic, Poglavnik of Croatia, was the most bloodthirsty of all Hitler's hyenas. A Balkan terrorist, Pavelic became head of the savage Ustashis, a Croat extremist group, and of a storm troop organization called Hrwatski Domobran (Croat Home Guard). When Hitler and Mussolini carved up Yugoslavia in 1941, they made a puppet kingdom out of Croatia and installed Pavelic as its poglavnik or fuehrer. By this time, he already had been sentenced to death twice. A third death sentence came later. And he beat them all. A short, ugly man with piercing eyes and shaggy brows, Pavelic fled Yugoslavia in 1928 after the assassination of his bitter foe, Croat Moderate leader Stepan Raditsch, on the floor of the Yugoslav Parliament. For his part in the assassination plot and other terrorist activities, Pavelic was condemned to death in absentia by the Royalist Yugoslav government. He joined the exiled Ustashis, then led by Dr. Ivo Frank, and negotiated a working agreement between this group of Croat outlaws and IMRO, the veteran Macedonian terror and murder society. In 1934, Pavelic masterminded the most sensational political assassination of that era—the murders of King Alexander of Yugoslavia and Foreign Minister Louis Barthou of France. The king sailed to Marseilles in October for a conference with French officials on possible means of checking the spreading Nazi menace. He hoped to strengthen the ties be59
60 Hitler's Heirs tween France and Yugoslavia and thereby block the aggresive moves of Hitler and Mussolini. Less than ten minutes after the king set foot on French soil, Pavelic's assassins killed him and the Foreign Minister. France tried in vain to extradite Pavelic from Italy, where he had set up Ustashi headquarters. Mussolini refused the extradition requests and placed Pavelic in "protective custody." In February, 1936, a French court sentenced him to death in absentia. He continued to live in Italy with his Jewish wife and three children, in a villa placed at his disposal by Mussolini, until April, 1941, when he returned to Zagreb to establish the "Independent State of Croatia." As soon as he was enthroned in the Zagreb palace, Poglavnik Pavelik began slaughtering Serbs, traditional enemies of the Croats, and seizing the property of Croat Jews. Personally, Pavelic had nothing against Jews. Some of his best friends were Jews. Not only his wife but the wives of Field Marshal Slavko Kvaternik and several other Croat leaders were Jewish. But the Poglavnik owed his title to Hitler. To show his gratitude, he wiped out Jewish communities throughout his puppet realm. Those that escaped being massacred were shipped off to the Nazi death camps. Perhaps Pavelic did not enjoy the Jewish pogroms, but he took a fiendish delight in slaughtering Serbs. One of his most poetic orders stated: "The roads will yearn for Serbs, but there will be no more Serbs." His goal was to annihilate the entire Serbian population of the Independent State of Croatia. And it was not his fault that this goal of total extermination was not completely fulfilled. For the Serbian slaughter campaign, he had the help of the two bloody Kvaterniks—Field Marshal Slavko and his son Eugene, State Secretary of Security. Eugene, affectionately known as Dido, was the Heinrich Himmler of Croatia. All police units were under his command. And all his police chiefs were Ustashis. Other stalwart supporters of the Poglavnik included men like Viktor Gutich, Ustashi Governor of Western Bosnia, a region with a predominantly Serbian population. Gutich told his lieutenants that Pavelic had decided to make Banya Luka the capital of Croatia, but before that could be done he (Gutich) would have to use "an iron broom to cleanse the city of Serbian dirt." Gutich's pep talk set off wholesale massacres of Serbs from one end of Croatia to the other.
A Bushel of Eyeballs 61 In August, 1941, the U.S. State Department received a report that Pavelic and his Ustashis were conducting "a comprehensive policy of extermination of the Serbian race in the Independent State of Croatia." Preferring not to waste bullets on Serbs, the barbaric Ustashis crushed skulls with hammers, ripped off arms and legs, emasculated Serbian men with bayonets, sliced breasts off women and girls, gouged out eyes and tore stomachs open. Then they threw their horribly maimed victims into caves, wells and cesspools and left them to die in agony. Not a single Serb was left alive in many towns throughout Croatia. In the city of Glina, some 600 men, women and children were herded into the Serbian Orthodox Church and butchered by Ustashis with guns, knives, iron bars and sledge hammers. Croat officials directed the massacre from the choir loft. The same methods were used to wipe out 2,000 Serbs in the Bosnian town of Sanski Most and another 2,000 in nearby Klyuch. The massacres continued through the winter of 194142 and the spring and summer of 1942. During the winter months, Ustashis chopped holes in river ice and dropped their victims through the holes into the freezing water. Those that escaped drowning froze to death. Ustashi governors, leaders, officers and police troops competed among themselves to see who could kill the most Serbs. Those with the best records were rewarded by the Poglavnik. All Serbian property was confiscated and turned over to the state and to the most murderous Ustashi chiefs. Hundreds of Serbian Orthodox churches, monasteries and cathedrals, many of them centuries old, were burned to the ground. Those that remained standing were looted of their art treasures and valuable documents, then converted to Ustashi meeting halls, warehouses, barracks and stables. In many towns, the Serbs were forced to watch their bishops and priests being tortured and subjected to unprintable acts of barbarism. In the ancient city of Dubrovnik, thousands of corpses were dumped into the Sava River with tags around their necks reading "Visa for Serbia." At Belgrade, where the Sava empties into the Danube, the beaches were closed in the summers of 1941 and 1942 because the water was so polluted by human flotsam. Pavelic's pogroms were so horrible that the outside world found reports from Yugoslavia difficult to believe. Even the Poglavnik's Nazi masters were shocked by his insatiable lust for Serbian blood.
Hitler's Heirs And yet visitors to his Zagreb palace were charmed by the bright side of his Jekyll-Hyde personality. One such visitor, Italian author Curzio Malaparte, summed up his first impression of Pavelic as follows: "I thought 'this is the terrorist who was responsible for the murder of King Alexander, the man on whose conscience rests Barthou's death.' I was inclined to believe that, perhaps, while unhesitatingly countenancing extreme methods for the defense of his people's freedom, he was horrified by bloodshed. He was a good-natured man, I mused, a simple and generous man." Malaparte visited Pavelic again a few months later. The Italian Ambassador to Croatia, Raffaele Casertano accompanied him. Pavelic told them: "The Croatian people wish to be ruled with goodness and justice. And I am here to provide them." "While he spoke," Malaparte later reported, "I gazed at a wicker basket on the Poglavnik's desk. The lid was slightly raised and the basket seemed to be filled with mussels or shelled oysters—as they are occasionally displayed in the windows of Fortnum and Mason in Piccadilly in London. "Casertano looked at me and winked. 'Would you like a nice oyster stew?' " 'Are they Dalmatian oysters?' I asked the Poglavnik. "Ante Pavelic removed the lid from the basket and revealed the mussels, that slimy and jellylike mass. And he said, smiling with that good-natured smile of his: 'It is a present from my loyal Ustashis. Forty pounds of human eyes.' " Pavelic's extermination campaign lasted about 18 months —from April of 1941 until the fall of 1942. During this period, more than one million Serbs and thousands of Jews were slain. Most of the surviving Serbs were sent to a concentration camp at Jasenovatz on the main railroad line between Belgrade and Zagreb. There, thousands of prisoners were systematically destroyed by methods that made Buchenwald and Dachau look like health resorts. When Pavelic's cardboard kingdom collapsed with the liberation of Yugoslavia in 1944, the Balkan butcher fled. Most of his lieutenants, left behind to fight a rear-guard action, were captured and executed. But a few big ones got away. Disguised as a peasant, Pavelic made his way to Rome where he had many influential friends. They gave him money, clothes, forged identity papers and a villa for his family. In May, 1945, Pavelic went to Austria to attend the war criminals' convention at Alt-Aussee. The location suited him
A Bushel of Eyeballs 63 so well that he rented a home in the neighboring Hintersee and lived there with his wife and children—by permission of the American Divisional Commander. Meanwhile, he was sentenced to death in absentia for the third time on July 15, 1945, by the Tito Yugoslav government. Pavelic remained in Austria until 1947, then returned to Italy and spent two more years masquerading as a retired Hungarian general. Around the end of 1949, he fled to Argentina with his family and became chief adviser to Peron's secret police. The job was set up for him by the Nazi underground, which also arranged transportation to Argentina for Pavelic's fellow fugitives from Croatia. Some observers of Die Spinne's activities wondered why the police post went to Pavelic instead of a former Gestapo officer. The answer is simple enough: Pavelic could afford to pay well for favors. During his reign as Poglavnik, he amassed a huge fortune from the stolen treasures of Jews, Serbs and the Croatian State. His puppet empire was known as the "Balkan Treasure Hoard" and a large portion of the loot went directly to Pavelic. Art masterpieces, precious jewels, gold and confiscated real estate all were converted to cash and smuggled out of Yugoslavia to the vaults of Swiss banks. As soon as the postwar hue-and-cry died down, Pavelic contacted his Swiss bankers with instructions for handling his multi-million-dollar account. He transferred at least one million to Buenos Aires to take care of his Nazi and Peronista pals and establish a Croat "government-in-exile." Assuming his real identity once again, Pavelic called himself "Poglavnik in Exile." Among the old Ustashi cronies in his cabinet were Dr. Osman Kulenovic, his Prime Minister; Dido Kvaternik, son of his former Field Marshal, and Dr. Artur Benzon, who had served as personal physician to both Pavelic and Hitler. When the Peron dictatorship was overthrown, Pavelic retired from public life. He moved to the little town of Casero not far from Buenos Aires, and lived there in comparative obscurity until Israeli or Yugoslav gunmen caught up with him in 1957. Shot twice and left for dead, Pavelic recovered. The men who tried to assassinate him were never caught. Pavelic was convinced they were agents of Marshal Tito. A few months after the murder attempt, the Argentine Government agreed to consider a Yugoslav extradition re-
64 Hitler's Heirs quest. Pavelic promptly disappeared. He hid out in Paraguay for a time. Then he went to Spain. On December 28, 1959, he died in German Hospital, Madrid, at the age of 70. A Roman Catholic funeral service was held for Yugoslavia's top war criminal. Ante Markovic of Toronto, representing Croat organizations in Canada, was one of several persons who arrived from abroad for the last rites. Pavelic's former private chaplain, the Rev. Rafhael Medic, flew in from Germany. He told reporters: "Pavelic was a good Catholic and be died consoled by the sacraments. He was a fighter all his life for freedom from tyranny for the Croatian people." The Paglovnik's two chief lieutenants, Osman Kulenovic and Dido Kvaternik, are still living in Argentina. Other Croat war criminals are living in the United States, England and West Germany. Describing the crimes of Pavelic and Marshal Slavko Kvaternik in his comprehensive book "Race and Reich," author Joseph Tenenbaum adds: "There was a third bloodhound, Eugene (Dido) Kvaternik, the son of Slavko, who was appointed State Secretary for Security and united all police powers in his bloody hand. If comparison is possible, this scion of a Jewish mother was the worst of the lot. Of him it can be said, as of his forerunner, Attila the Hun, that where he trod no grass ever grew again. Whole villages were burnt to cinders and the inhabitants massacred." As heads of the Ustashi military and police forces, the Kvaterniks carried out Pavelic's extermination decrees. And it was Dido who proudly presented his Poglavnik with a bushel of human eyeballs.
"I STARTED WORLD WAR II"
The two German businessmen met in Madrid last year, at the air-conditioned bar of a downtown hotel. Over iced drinks, they discovered they had quite a lot in common. They were both former National Socialists, both S.S. veterans. The older man, short, bald and asthmatic, had been a colonel in the Waffen S.S. His round face glowed like a polished apple as he recalled the "good old days" in wartime France. His drinking companion was a tall, lean man of about fifty with the saddle-leather complexion of one who has spent much time in the tropical sun. Tiny wrinkles lined the corners of his dark, alert eyes. His nose was long and slightly flat. He wore a lightweight suit of dark blue English worsted, tailored in Cairo. The jacket was carefully cut to conceal the holster slung beneath his left armpit. "What did you do in the war?" the colonel asked after their fifth round. The younger man smiled. "I started it," he replied. In a way, Alfred Naujocks was telling the truth. One of his most important missions for the S.D., Nazi Security Service, was the Polish border incident that set off World War II. This is his account of the incident, as told at the Nuremberg war crimes trials: On or about Aug. 10, 1939, the Chief of Sipo (Security Police) and S.D., Heydrich, personally ordered me to simulate an attack on the radio station near Gleiwitz (Germany), near the Polish border, and to make it appear that the attacking force consisted of Poles. Heydrich said: 'Actual proof of these attacks by the Poles is needed for the foreign press as well as for German propaganda purposes.' I was directed to go to Gleiwitz with five or six S.D. men and wait there until I received a code word from Heydrich indicating that the attack should take place . . . My instructions were to seize the radio station and to hold it long enough to permit a Polish-speaking German, who would be put at my disposal, to broad65
Hitler's Heirs cast a speech in Polish. Heydrich told me that this speech should state that the time had come for conflict between Germans and Poles. Heydrich also told me that he expected an attack on Poland by Germany in a few days. I went to Gleiwitz and waited there 14 days. Between the 25th and 31st of August, I went to see Heinrich Mueller, head of the Gestapo, who was then nearby at Oppeln. In my presence, Mueller discussed with a man named Melhorn plans for another border incident in which it would be made to appear that Polish soldiers were attacking German troops. Mueller stated that he had twelve or thirteen condemned criminals who were to be dressed in Polish uniforms and left dead on the ground at the scene of the incident to show that they had been killed while attacking. For this purpose they were to be given fatal injections by a doctor employed by Heydrich. Then they were also to be given gunshot wounds. After the incident, members of the press and other persons were to be taken to the scene. . . Mueller told me he had an order from Heydrich to make one of those criminals available to me for the action at Gleiwitz. The code name by which he referred to these criminals was 'Canned Goods.' The incident at Gleiwitz in which I participated was carried out on the evening preceding the attack on Poland. As I recall, war broke out on September 1, 1939. At noon on August 31, I received by telephone from Heydrich the code word for the attack which was to take place at 8 o'clock that evening. Heydrich said; In order to carry out this attack, report to Mueller for Canned Goods.' I did this and gave Mueller instructions to deliver the man near the radio station. I received this man and had him laid in the entrance to the station. He was alive, but he was completely unconscious. I tried to open his eyes. I could not recognize by his eyes that he was alive, but only by his breathing. I did not see the gunshot wounds, but a lot of blood was smeared across his face and chest. He was in civilian clothes. We seized the radio station as ordered, broadcast
"I Started World War II" a speech of three to four minutes over an emergency transmitter, fired some pistol shots and left.
The fake frontier raid, known to the Nazi high command as "Operation Himmler," provided Hitler with an excuse for attacking Poland and plunging the world into war. Naujocks played his part so well that he was given a leading role in another frontier incident the following year. He commanded a special S.D. unit whose members were disguised as Dutch and Belgian border guards for the Nazi invasion of the West in May, 1940. These and other undercover actions made Naujocks a master of intrigue, deceit, doublecross and mass murder. In other words, he had all the qualities required for leadership in the Third Reich. Tough and intelligent, he had studied engineering at Kiel University, where he joined the Nazi Party and had his nose broken in a battle between Nazis and Communists. He became an S.S. goon in 1931 and was assigned to the S.D. shortly after the counterintelligence service was organized in 1934. After war was declared, he was placed in charge of an S.D. section which forged identity papers, passports and foreign currencies. This office printed bogus bills that the Nazis used to pay off informers, buy war supplies from neutral nations and purchase other badly-needed goods. Naujocks turned out thousands of counterfeit British banknotes and proposed dropping them on England from German bombers to wreck the British economy. His superiors vetoed this scheme, however. Heydrich eventually tired of him and shipped Naujocks off to the Russian front with a Waffen S.S. regiment. He was wounded and returned to Germany to recuperate. Then he was sent to Denmark to supervise the roundup and liquidation of Danish freedom fighters. For every German slain in occupied Denmark, at least ten Danes were executed. Most of the victims were not even members of the resistance movement. Naujocks' last wartime post assignment was in Belgium, where he served as an "economic administrator." One of his duties was the recruitment of workers for Germany's slave labor camps. This job was important, but he much preferred undercover assignments like "Operation Himmler" and the notorious "Venlo Incident" in which he helped kidnap two British intelligence agents.
Hitler's Heirs The Venlo affair was the outgrowth of an attempt to assassinate Hitler. On November 8, 1939, the Fuehrer made his annual speech to the party Old Guard in the Munich beer hall where his 1923 putsch occurred. Minutes after Hitler left the hall, a bomb exploded behind the speakers' platform, killing seven men and wounding 65 others. Nazi leaders immediately blamed the British Secret Service in order to stir up hatred for England and support for Hitler. Within three hours after the blast, Himmler phoned his Secret Service commander, General Schellenberg, in Dusseldorf and ordered him to go to Holland the next day and arrest two British agents with whom he had been in contact. Posing as an anti-Nazi German major, Schellenberg had crossed the border several times for talks with Capt. S. Payne Best and Major R. H. Stevens of the British Military Intelligence. They had agreed to meet again on the afternoon of November 9. Himmler's new orders shocked Scbellenberg, but left him no alternative. He immediately notified Naujocks, who was in charge of a special S.S. detachment assigned to protect Schellenberg. The two men made hasty plans to seize the British agents on the Dutch side of the border and kidnap them to Germany. Around two o'clock the following afternoon, Schellenberg and one of his agents crossed the Dutch border near Venlo. Leaving their car in a parking lot, they entered a cafe about 150 feet inside Holland, near the Dutch customs office. They ordered an apertif and settled down to wait. At 3:20, Best and Stevens drove up in a big Buick with Lieutenant Klop, a Dutch intelligence agent. As the Buick pulled into the parking lot behind the cafe, a Mercedes-Benz sedan loaded with German agents crashed through the border barrier. A volley of pistol shots scattered the Dutch frontier guards. Schellenberg left the cafe and walked toward the Buick. This is Schellenberg's account of what happened next:
Captain Best was driving the Buick and Lieutenant Coppens [the alias used by Lieutenant Klop] was sitting beside him. Coppens jumped out of the car at once, at the same time drawing out a heavy service revolver which he pointed at me. I, being completely unarmed, jumped to one side and tried to present a less prominent target. At this moment the S.S. car came skidding around the corner into the car park. Coppens, recognizing
"I Started World War II" 69 it as the greater danger, turned and fired several shots into the windshield. I saw the glass shatter and crystalline threads spreading from the bullet holes ... I was certain Coppens must have hit the driver and the S.S. leader [Naujocks] sitting beside him. Yet it seemed like an eternity before anything else happened. Then suddenly I saw the lithe figure of the leader leap from the car. He had also drawn his pistol and a regular duel developed between him and Coppens . . . Both men shot with deliberation, aiming carefully. Then Coppens slowly lowered his gun and sank down on his knees. I heard the leader shouting at me, "Will you get the hell out of this! God knows why you haven't been hit." I turned and ran around the corner of the cafe toward my car. Looking back, I saw Best and Stevens being hauled out of the Buick like bundles of hay. The two British agents and the fatally-wounded Klop were tossed into the S.S. car. The big black Mercedes then roared back across the border before the Dutch guards knew what was happening. Not a shot was fired by the frontier guards. Klop was taken to a Dusseldorf hospital, where he died a few hours later. Best and Stevens were sent to Berlin for interrogation by Gestapo Mueller and Hangman Heydrich. Then they were interned in Sachsenhausen concentration camp for the duration of the war. On November 21, Hitler announced that the bomb plot had been solved with the arrests of Best and Stevens "on the Dutch-German frontier" the day after the bombing. Actually the bomb was assembled and planted by a German Communist, George Elser. A Munich carpenter, he had no connection with British Intelligence. While Schellenberg was decorated by Hitler for masterminding the Venlo Incident, it was Naujocks who carried it off and saved Schellenberg's life in the process. Five years later, on October 19, 1944, Naujocks deserted his post in Belgium and surrendered to American authorities. He testified against brother Nazis at Nuremberg and bragged of his own daredevil escapades. Held for trial as a war criminal, he broke out of a heavily-guarded internment camp in 1956 with the help of German guerillas. Then he hitched a ride on the "underground railway." He was never apprehended. Unlike Skorzeny, Rudel and
70 Hitler's Heirs other famous Swastika swashbucklers, he never returned to address Nazi alumni reunions. He remained underground as a traveling trouble-shooter for Die Spinne. Today, Naujocks is believed to be in the Middle East. He has also been reported seen in Tangier, Spain and South America. Presumably, he is a courier for Martin Bormann. Still an undercover agent, the man who started World War II is now working on World War III.
One of the most common German names is Heinrich Mueller. In English, it means Henry Miller. One of the most notorious Nazi names was Gestapo—short for Geheime Staatspolizei, or Secret State Police. Put them together and you have Gestapo Mueller, a name known and feared throught wartime Europe. S.S. Lieutenant General Heinrich (Gestapo) Mueller, a nondescript man with a commonplace name, was chief of Hitler's secret police and Lord High Executioner of the Third Reich. Next to Martin Bormann, he is the most wanted Nazi criminal. Born in 1900, he was a soldier in World War I and then a policeman in his native Bavaria. So far as outward appearances could judge, he was just like a million other young Germans—medium height, medium build, average looks, average intelligence, middle-class background and education. Everything about Heinrich Mueller seemed commonplace as his name. Only his taste in literature was different. While his contemporaries were avidly reading Mein Kampf, Mueller studied the works of Marx and Lenin. From his readings grew the framework of the Gestapo, most ruthless terror machine in history. As its commander, Mueller was responsible for some twelve million murders. At his orders, Adolf Eichmann sent six million Jews to the Nazi death camps. At his orders, Gestapo thugs turned Germany and occupied Europe into a vast slave empire and slaughter factory. Hundreds of Gestapo agents and victims, thousands of pages of evidence supply ghastly details of Mueller's crimes. And yet the blood-spattered pages of Nazi history say almost nothing about the Gestapo mastermind himself. The few men who have written about him could not even agree on the color of his eyes. The late Major General Walter Schellenberg, a Gestapo graduate who became chief of the Nazi Foreign Intelligence Service, worked closely with Mueller and saw him virtually every day for several years. In his memoirs, Schellenberg gave this physical descrip71
Hitler's Heirs tion of the Gestapo boss: ''Mueller was dry and laconic. Short and broad, with the squarish skull of a peasant and a jutting forehead, he had tense, narrow lips and penetrating brown eyes, hooded by nervously twitching eyelids. His hands were wide and massive, with fingers as square as a matchbox." Major General Walter Dornberger, chief of German rocket research at Peenemuende, also described Mueller in his memoirs. "He was the unobtrusive type of police official who leaves no personal impression on the memory," the scientist wrote. "Later, all I could remember was a pair of piercing grey-blue eyes fixed on me with an unwavering scrutiny. My first impression was one of cold curiosity and extreme reserve." His eyes, whatever the color, apparently were the most outstanding feature of his hard, expressionless face. Captain S. Payne Best, a British intelligence agent who was kidnaped by the Gestapo's intelligence arm, observed that Mueller "had rather funny eyes which he would flicker from side to side with the greatest rapidity, and I suppose that this was supposed to strike terror into the heart of the beholder." Best was one of the few Gestapo prisoners who was interviewed personally by Mueller and lived to tell about it. Of this experience, he wrote: "Mueller was a dapper, exceptionally good-looking little man, dressed in imitation of Adolf Hitler, in a gray uniform jacket, black riding breeches and top boots. He started his 'snort' immediately he entered and, as he walked towards me, increased the pitch and the volume of his voice with great virtuosity. "He managed to get right up close to me before his vocal chords tore into shreds. 'You are in the hands of the Gestapo. Don't imagine that we will show you the slightest consideration. The Fuehrer has already shown the world that he is invincible and soon he will come and liberate the people of England from the Jews and Plutocrats such as you. It is war and Germany is fighting for her existence. You are in the greatest danger and if you want to live another day you must be very careful.' "Then he sat down on a chair in front of me and drew it up as close as possible, apparently with the intention of performing some mesmerizing trick." Perhaps the trick worked, for Best concluded: "In my experience I always found Mueller a very decent little man." This was indeed a unique assertion for a Gestapo victim.
Gestapo Mueller 73 The Gestapo began in 1933 as part of the private police force of Reichsminister Hermann Goering. But its real history did not start until Heinrich Himmler took over in 1934. Himmler, a former chicken farmer and fertilizer salesman, was an early member of the brown-shirt S.A. storm troopers and one of the original black-shirt S.S. thugs first organized as Hitler's personal bodyguard. In 1929, Hitler made him chief of the S.S., which then numbered only about 280 men. The following year, after the National Socialist Party scored an astounding election victory, Himmler became Police Chief of Bavaria. Looking about for a capable assistant who would obey orders without asking too many questions, he selected a tough, efficient Munich detective named Heinrich Mueller. When Hitler became Germany's Fuehrer and Reich Chancellor, he appointed the faithful Himmler chief of all German police services. Himmler brought Mueller with him to Berlin and eventually placed him in charge of the Secret State Police. From then on, for all practical purposes, the Gestapo was Mueller and Mueller was the Gestapo. The Gestapo became Section IV of the Reich Security Main Office (Reichssicherheitshauptamt, or R.S.H.A.), headed by the homicidal Lieutenant General Reinhard Heydrich, Chief of Security Police and Security Services. Under Mueller's evil genius, R.S.H.A. Amt IV became the most sinister, most powerful police network ever devised. It reached into every stratum of German society, then into every corner of Europe. No one was safe from the Gestapo. Its army of spies and informers was everywhere. The vast range of Gestapo activities is best illustrated by a list of its sections and sub-sections: R.S.H.A. Amt IV la—Communism; enemy broadcasting and propaganda; guerilla operations; Russian war prisoners. lb—Reaction; monarchism; pacifism; liberalism; defeatism; rumors; undermining morale. 2—Sabotage; radio jamming; enemy parachutists; commandos. 3a—Counterintelligence; careless talk. 3b—Economics; foreign exchange. 3c—Frontier control. 4a—Catholicism; Protestantism; Freemasonry. 4b—Judaism. 5a—Anti-social behavior. 6a—Card indexes; personal files; information. 6b—Protective custody; concentration camps.
Hitler's Heirs All these came under Section IVA. During the war, Section IVB was added to cover occupied countries, employment of foreign workers, slave labor and border protection. The various designations sounded innocent enough. But Amt IVA 4b, for example, was the office where Adolf Eichmann supervised the roundup of 6 million Jews and thentransportation to the extermination centers. Office 6b of the same section saw that Eichmann's charges reached the gas chambers and crematoriums. And Office 6a kept dossiers on every German citizen from the lowest peasant to Der Fuehrer himself. Gestapo Mueller personally directed every important phase of this enormous operation. Although his directives often were issued in the name of Himmler and Heydrich, it was Mueller who made most of the decisions and Mueller who saw that they were carried out. A career policeman first, last and always, he had no time for politics and little regard for politicians. He did not join the Nazi Party until 1939, and only then because party membership was expected of all section chiefs in the Reich Security Main Office. However, he kept close track of all political developments and had contacts and informants in every party unit and government office. Rudolf Hoess, the fiendish commandant of Auschwitz, gave the best capsule summary of the police commander's official functions when he wrote: "Mueller was the ice-cold executive or organizer of all the measures which the Reichsfuehrer S.S. deemed necessary for the security of the Reich." Before he was executed by Polish authorities in 1947, Hoess found time to write his autobiography, in which he boasted that "I built Auschwitz from a small collection of huts into the greatest murder camp ever known." Devoting a special appendix to the Gestapo chief, he wrote: It was Mueller's principle to remain in the background, for he did not care to be associated with any kind of operations or actions. Yet it was he who organized all the larger and more important actions taken by the security police, and it was he who planned their execution . .. After Heydrich's departure [Heydrich was killed by Czech partisans in June, 1942] he became the leading personality of the Reich Security Main Office. Kaltenbrunner [Lieutenant General Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Heydrich's successor] was only the
Gestapo- Mueller 75 chief and concerned himself principally with the Secret Service . .. Mueller had only visited a concentration camp on a few occasions and had never inspected them all. Nevertheless he always kept up to date on matters concerning them, and it was not for nothing that the head of the political department in each camp was a Gestapo member . . . He had an accurate knowledge of the far-reaching and delicate question of the special prisoners (important political prisoners). He knew the exact details of each of these prisoners, where they were accommodated and their particular weaknesses . .. I knew from Eichmann and Guenther [Hans Guenther, Eichmann's deputy in Amt IV 4b] that Mueller controlled the actions against the Jews in their most important respects, even though he gave Eichmann a fairly free hand in the matter. Under Mueller, the Gestapo became a state within a state, making and enforcing its own laws, establishing "embassies" in nearly all the capitals of Europe, terrorizing officials of the Reich as well as ordinary citizens. This super police state was ruled from Mueller's office in Gestapo headquarters on Prinz Albrechtstrasse, Berlin. He usually spent 10 to 16 hours a day there, often working nights, Sundays and holidays. A steady stream of reports flowed across his mahogany desk, but he never allowed the gleaming desktop to become cluttered. He answered questions from subordinates promptly, always prefacing his instructions with such camouflage comments as "the Reichsfuehrer S.S. orders . . " or "the Reichsfuehrer S.S. wishes . . ." In this way, he implied that he was merely carrying out Himmler's commands. His personal staff consisted of two adjutants and two special clerks. They worked alternate 12-hour shifts, so that one of each was always available. These men were in constant touch with the Gestapo communications center, a vast radiotelephone network handling messages to and from Gestapo branches all over Europe, and with the "library" where data on the public and private lives of millions of humans was catalogued and filed. A telephone table beside Mueller's desk supplied him with direct lines to Hitler's Chancellory office, the offices and home of Himmler and Heydrich, and Gestapo headquarters in Paris, Vienna and Prague.
76 Hitler's Heirs The desk itself contained two hidden submachine guns, set to spray the room with bullets at the press of a button. Other buttons at his fingertips activated hidden movie cameras and tape recorders. Microphones were concealed in the walls, the desk and the base of a desk lamp. All conversations with outsiders, prisoners and informers were recorded while cameras filmed the visitor's every gesture and facial expression. The cameras and one of the automatic guns were trained on the "inquisition seat," a straightback wooden chair bolted to the floor in front of Mueller's desk. Two of his push-buttons were for emergency use only. One of these set off a shrill alarm throughout the building. At the sound of the siren, guards were instructed to lock all exits and break into Mueller's inner sanctum on the double. Presumably, this alarm was never used, except for tests. The other button's emergency purpose was to destroy the Gestapo library. Before he left Berlin, Mueller pressed it and saw the work of six years and thousands of agents go up in a puff of orange smoke. His precious files contained incriminating evidence against nearly all the top figures of the Third Reich, including his own bosses, Himmler and Heydrich. The latter's file, for example, included documented proof that Heydrich the Hangman, arch foe of "international Jewry," had a Jewish ancestor. That information alone would have been enough to cost Heydrich bis job and his life. The bulging file on Himmler showed that the Reichsfuehrer S.S. was deeply in debt; that he had failed to carry out Hitler's orders on numerous occasions; that he had failed to take proper precautions to protect Hitler's life; that he had held secret conferences with some of the generals involved in the 1944 bomb plot and, finally, that he was engaged in secret negotiations with the advancing Allies. Mueller also checked up on his subordinate officers, collecting information on their weaknesses and vices. But the voluminous records he compiled on the Nazi hierarchy never served any practical purpose. They were simply Gestapo Mueller's trump cards, his insurance against friends and foes alike. Among his most lucrative sources of information was a luxurious brothel called "Salon Kitty." A joint venture of the Gestapo and the Secret Service, the "salon" was located in a large house in one of Berlin's finest residential districts. It was stocked with the best available foods, wines, liqueurs and, of course, entertainment.
Gestapo Mueller 77 The girls were recruited by Arthur Nebe, chief of Criminal Police, from the most expensive and exclusive bordellos of Europe. Besides these highly-skilled professionals, a number of German fashion models, actresses and society girls volunteered for work there. On the first floor was a cocktail lounge, dining room, music room where a trio played dance tunes, bar room and kitchen. The tastefully-decorated bedrooms were upstairs. Electronic eavesdroppers recorded every word spoken in the house. Hidden cameras recorded boudoir scenes. Except for tips, money did not change hands in Salon Kitty. The girls were paid by the Reich Security Main Office. Most of their guests were foreign diplomats, but officials of the German Foreign Office and other Nazi brass also made frequent use of the salon's specialized services. Heydrich himself often showed up for "inspection tours." On these visits, he ordered the listening and watching devices turned off. But Mueller, unable to pass up this golden opportunity for spying on his chief, ignored the order. Salon Kitty afforded visiting diplomats a unique opportunity to relax, let their hair down and spend a few pleasant hours with beautiful girls who could speak their own language. All the languages of Europe were, spoken there. Somehow, Chief Nebe even obtained a genuine Japanese Geisha to pry secrets out of Asian diplomats. An astounding mass of information was gathered in this fashion. Italy's Foreign Minister, Count Ciano, was among the big fish caught in the silken net. The perfumed pleasures of Salon Kitty were reserved for those whose secrets could not be obtained by more orthodox measures. Other special guests of the Gestapo were entertained at "Salon Heinrich," the dungeons beneath Mueller's headquarters in Prinz Albrechtstrasse. In this private prison, hundreds of V.I.P.'s (very important prisoners) were tortured and slain. At the Nuremberg trials, Gestapo agents listed the most common methods used to persuade prisoners to talk; 1. The lash. 2. Beatings with wooden clubs, rubber truncheons, brass knuckles, blackjacks and other weapons. 3. Thumb-screws. 4. The bath. Prisoners were plunged head-first into a tub of icy water. The process was repeated until the victim talked or drowned. 5. The "eunuch-maker," a specially-designed press for twisting and crushing the testicles.
Hitler's Heirs 6. Electric shock. Terminals were placed on hands and feet, in the ears, then one in the anus and another on the end of the penis. Electric current flowed from terminal to terminal. 7. Burning with a soldering-lamp, cigarette lighter or matches applied to the bare feet or stuck under the fingernails. 8. Nail-pulling with pliers. 9. Hanging. After the victim's arms were handcuffed together behind his back, a hook was slipped through the handcuffs and he was lifted up by a pulley. At first, the prisoner was jerked up and down; then he was suspended by the hook for several hours. 10. Iron boot, a device for crushing the foot and ankle. These were but a few of the tongue-loosening tools approved by Gestapo Mueller. There were also iron bands which, contracted around the head; special apparatus for mangling wrists and ankles, and modern versions of all the equipment of the medieval torture chamber, except for the rack. Each Gestapo inquisitor had his own special technique and innovations. Special tortures were reserved for females, such as an electric rod inserted in the vagina. Often a woman was tortured within hearing of a male prisoner, to make him believe the woman was his wife or sweetheart. Though there is no record of Mueller personally torturing a prisoner, it can be assumed that he took part in many such inquisitions. He certainly was well aware of what went on in the basement dungeons of Prinz Albrechtstrasse and in other Gestapo internment centers and concentration camps throughout Europe. Mueller modelled his secret police force and "its terror tactics after the Soviet N.K.V.D. But the Gestapo far exceeded the most brutal measures of its Russian counterpart. And its officers were mainly sadistic, cowardly brutes rather than trained police agents who looked on murder and torture, as the O.G.P.U. and N.K.V.D. did, as simply part of the job. A student of Soviet police methods since his early days on the Munich force, Mueller was tremendously impressed by Russia's internal spy system that turned neighbor against neighbor, friend against friend, brother against brother. He set out to reproduce this system in Germany. Thousands of ordinary citizens were enrolled as part-time auxiliary Gestapo agents. Every apartment house superintendent, for example, was required to spy on his tenants and report their activities. Every air-raid warden was an honorary
Gestapo Mueller 79 Gestapo member. Every labor union, factory, school and farm community had its Gestapo representative. Although the Gestapo never numbered more than 40,000 actual agents, it employed hundreds of thousands of civilian spies and informers. Mueller's Soviet-inspired spy network ran all the way to the top of the Nazi pyramid. Not even Hitler's private intrigues could be kept secret from the Gestapo commander. He played two of Hitler's top aides, Himmler and Bormann, against each other and pumped them dry of information about members of the Nazi high command. Mueller was one of the few men who shared Himmler's confidences. The information he received from the Reichsfuehrer S.S., he used to ingratiate himself with Bormann. As Bormann betrayed Rudolf Hess to get his job, so Mueller double-crossed Himmler. But Himmler apparently suspected what was happening, for his relations with the Gestapo chief cooled considerably towards the end. Though Mueller did bis best to disassociate himself from the worst Gestapo atrocities, witnesses and documents link him directly to such events as the "Crystal Night" pogrom of 1938, first major action against German Jews; the Polish border incident that exploded World War II; the torture murders of Allied war prisoners, and the concentration camp horrors. One of his most important operations bore the code name Rote Kapelle (Red Chapel). For this cloak-and-dagger undertaking (1941-42), Mueller's Security Department joined forces with Schellenberg's Secret Service and the Abwehr (Military Intelligence) of Admiral Wilhelm Canaris. After months of intensive investigation, the security task force broke up a gigantic Russian spy ring covering not only Germany and the occupied countries but also neutral nations. According to Schellenberg, the spy network with its many shortwave radio transmitters "extended from Norway to the Pyrenees, from the Atlantic to the Oder, from the North Sea to the Mediterranean." From a security standpoint, Rote Kapelle was Mueller's supreme achievement. Yet he insisted on giving Schellenberg, whom he disliked and distrusted, full credit for smashing the espionage apparatus. For his own reasons, he wanted to make it appear that his role in the spy hunt was a minor one. Several of the short-wave transmitters seized in Rote Kapelle were used to send false information to the Russians. And several of the captured Soviet spies became Gestapo informers.
Hitler's Heirs Though some of their most valuable agents had been arrested, the Soviet secret services gained an unexpected ally— the man who was supposed to be conducting a ruthless war against Communism, the man in charge of Rote Kapelle! Gestapo Mueller contacted the Russians in the spring of 1943, using one of the captured transmitters. His first messages were extremely cautious and he identified himself only as a Gestapo officer. For the next two years, he walked a precarious tightrope between Berlin and Moscow. His go-between in negotiations with the Soviets was a German Communist who had held a high position in the Nazi Foreign Office before he was caught in the Rote Kapelle roundup. Through this red agent, Mueller eventually got in touch with no less a personage than Soviet Secret Police Chief Lavrenty Beria. After the war, Schellenberg claimed to have been aware since late 1943 that Mueller was in contact with the Russian Secret Service. However, he did not explain why he did not pass this information on to Himmler and Kaltenbrunner. There can be only one logical explanation: Schellenberg was afraid to report Mueller's traitorous activities for fear the Gestapo chief would expose his own mysterious negotiations with the Western Allies. Like rats about to leave a sinking ship, both Gestapo Mueller and Secret Service Schellenberg were intent on making private deals with East and West before the Third Reich collapsed. On April 29, 1945, the day before Hitler's suicide, Mueller was summoned to the Fuehrer's bunker to interrogate S.S. General Hermann Fegelein. An illiterate ex-jockey, Fegelein became a high-ranking Nazi largely because he had once passed tips on crooked horse races to Christian Weber, one of Hitler's oldest and closest friends. As Weber's protege, the onetime stable sweeper eventually became a Waffen S.S. general and Himmler's liaison officer at Hitler's headquarters. Then he joined the Fuehrer's family circle by marrying Eva Braun's sister, Gretl. He was a stupid, deceitful man and Martin Bormann had no trouble using him to further his plot against Himmler. With Berlin in flames and Russian tanks rumbling towards the heart of the city, Fegelein quietly left the bunker on April 26. Hitler discovered his disappearance the next day and sent an S.S. search party out to find him. He was located in his home in the Charlottenburg section, preparing to flee the city,
Gestapo Mueller 81 Arrested and returned to the bunker, he was stripped of his S.S. rank and locked up in the guardhouse. On the evening of April 28, Hitler learned that Himmler—"der treue Heinrich' —had sold out to the Allies and was offering to surrender German armies in the West. Hitler immediately accused Fegelein of being Himmler's accomplice in the "betrayal." Cold and professional as usual, Gestapo Mueller arrived at the bunker the next morning to question the terrified Fegelein. When he was through, Fegelein was taken into the garden and shot. It was Hitler's last act of vengeance and Mueller's last job as chief of the Secret Police. Returning to his bomb-pitted headquarters in Prinz Aibrechtstxasse, Mueller destroyed his files after stuffing a briefcase full of the most important papers—documents which the Russians undoubtedly would find interesting. Then he left the building and walked a short distance to 116 Kurfuerstenstrasse, where his Jewish Section, Amt IVA 4b, had its own headquarters. This impressive four-story structure, designed and built by Adolf Eichmann to house his huge staff and files on European Jewry, had an underground shelter with dozens of exits and mile-long passages stretching in all directions. Some of the passages led directly to the Soviet-occupied side of Berlin. Gestapo Mueller went that way. Hitler's Lord High Executioner vanished without a trace. Hundreds of witnesses later told of his bloody deeds, but none could shed any light on the riddle of Mueller the man. He was, as Edward Crankshaw describes him in his excellent book Gestapo, a man without a shadow. S.S. Lieutenant Colonel Willi Hoettl, a member of the Gestapo's Foreign Intelligence Service, was convinced his chief joined the Soviet Secret Service after the war. The Kremlin has never bothered to confirm or deny this theory. A German general who spent ten years in a Russian prison reported on his release that he was questioned several times by "a man with flickering eyes" whom he recognized as Mueller. Another former Nazi officer, now a Hamburg businessman, told associates he saw Mueller in Moscow. He said Mueller, wearing the uniform of a Soviet police official, was dining in the palatial Sovietskaya Hotel. From refugees, captured Soviet spies and Russian intelligence officers who defected to the West come other reports that Mueller is still alive behind the Iron Curtain. There are also rumors that he died in Moscow around
1948, that he joined Martin Bormann in Argentina and that he left the Soviet Union a few years ago and went to Africa. But the most reliable information, from former red agents, is that Gestapo Mueller today is the most secret of Soviet secret policemen. A colonel in Russia's foreign intelligence bureau, he makes frequent trips to East Germany and even to East Berlin, where his headquarters is only a few blocks from bis old command post in Prinz Albrechtstrasse.
TOUGHEST MAN ALIVE
The last German offensive on the Western front in World War II began December 16, 1944, in the mist-shrouded Ardennes Forest of southeast Belgium, At 5:45 A.M. the following morning, a military policeman attached to a unit of the U.S. First Army was patrolling a forest road between Spa and the border town of Eupen. In the uncertain light of a cold, wet dawn, he saw what he took to be a U.S. soldier trudging along the side of the road. Wondering what the man was doing out alone so early in the day, the M.P. pulled alongside in his jeep and began asking questions. The answers were unsatisfactory. Furthermore, they were delivered in a thick, guttural accent that sounded distinctly Germanic. The soldier wore no "dog tag" and his identification papers, though carefully dirtied, bore crease marks that looked suspiciously fresh. Convinced this was no ordinary G.I., the army cop arrested him and took him to Military Police headquarters for further interrogation. One of the first prisoners captured in the Battle of the Bulge, the man in the American uniform turned out to be a German officer. Papers concealed on his person revealed he had been assigned to Aktion Greif—Operation Grab—a fantastic scheme to infiltrate American lines with English-speaking Germans disguised as American troops. But this was only a part of the plot. Other details, provided by the prisoner, were so startling that a dispatch rider set out for Paris immediately with a top-secret report for Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower, supreme Allied commander. On December 18, less than 48 hours after the Ardennes offensive and Operation Grab got underway, a general alarm went out from Allied Headquarters in Paris, warning troops to be on the alert for impersonators. The headquarters guard was doubled. So were the personal bodyguards of General Eisenhower, Air Chief Marshal Sir Arthur W. Tedder, General Omar N. Bradley, Field Marshal Sir Bernard L. Montgomery and French General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny. There was good reason for the precautions. First Army 83
Hitler's Heirs intelligence officers had uncovered a daring plan to assassinate General Eisenhower. According to the captured German officer and other Aktion Greif commandos apprehended later, a group of German officers in U.S. Army and Wehrmacht officer uniforms were to head for Paris in a stolen First Army staff car. When stopped, the men disguised as American officers were to say they were taking high-ranking Nazi prisoners to Allied Headquarters for questioning about the Ardennes drive. In this way, they hoped to get within shooting range of Gen. Eisenhower. The scheme sounded insane. But the Germans were desperate enough to try it. To be on the safe side, members of General Eisenhower's headquarters staff persuaded him to let a "double" take his place for public appearances. Lieutenant Colonel Baldwin B. Smith of Chicago, who bore a striking resemblance to the Allied commander, was advised of the plot and volunteered to serve as a decoy. He rode around Paris in the General's official limousine and made daily trips between the Eisenhower residence in St. Germains and Allied Headquarters at Versailles. Meanwhile, military police guarded all roads between Paris and the German frontier. Paris-bound jeeps, cars and trucks were stopped every few miles. Pointing tommyguns at the drivers, guards asked questions designed to test their knowledge of American slang, sports, comic strips, jazz and other subjects familiar to most G.I.s but few Germans: "What's the capital of your home state?" "Who is The Voice?" "What are The Bums and The Bucs?" "Who is Popeye's girl friend?" Soldiers who didn't know or couldn't remember the right answers were promptly arrested for further questioning. In this fashion, about fifty German commandos were captured. When pumped dry of information about Aktion Greif, they were given a speedy trial and shot for wearing American uniforms. Many others were shot while resisting arrest or trying to escape. From the prisoners, the full story of Operation Grab emerged. It was the brainchild of S.S. Fuehrer Heinrich Himmler and his personal hatchetman, Lieutenant Colonel Otto Skorzeny, a scarfaced giant whose exploits prompted Himmler to call him "the toughest man alive." A month before the Ardennes offensive, Skorzeny was placed in command of Brigade 150, a special commando unit consisting of 150 men hand-picked from the German
Toughest Man Alive 85 ground, air and naval forces. All of them had been decorated for bravery. All spoke fluent English and most had American accents. Some had lived in America. Others had worked for American business firms or U.S. government offices in Europe. Skorzeny himself was the only officer of Brigade 150 who knew no English. His job was to teach the men how to infiltrate enemy lines, blow up bridges and communication centers, disrupt military traffic and create as much chaos and confusion as possible. The commandos were trained at Skorzeny's castle headquarters, Schloss Friedenthal, in the Oranienburg section of Berlin, and at Grafenwoehr near Nuremberg. They studied U.S. Army history, customs, tactics and close-order drill as well as American mannerisms and habits. They even learned the typical American way of opening a pack of cigarets. To test the deception, some were put in detention camps with American war prisoners. At least one of these imposters was discovered and severely beaten. The initial force of 150 English-speaking commandos was supplemented by about 1500 other German soldiers in special armored, signal and parachute units. Dressed in American uniforms, they received captured Sherman tanks, U.S. Army jeeps and trucks, tank-destroyer equipment and forged documents, including identification papers, drivers' licenses and trip tickets. But they did not get dog tags, possibly so they could distinguish each other from genuine Americans. When the Battle of the Bulge began, forty jeeploads of Germans in GX uniforms slipped through the American front lines. Others rolled through the lines in U.S. trucks and tanks. Some were dispatched to the bridges over the River Meuse, with orders to hold them until German panzer troops arrived. Some cut American communications lines and shot dispatch riders. Some, posing as M.P.s, took up posts at strategic crossroads and misdirected traffic moving toward the front. Brigade 150 got farther than any other German unit in the Ardennes breakthrough. One party of four penetrated as far as Liege, about twenty-five miles from the BelgianGerman frontier. But none of the commandos got west of the Meuse. Though Skorzeny directed Operation Grab, he took no part in the commando forays. It would have been impossible to disguise the hulking, six-foot-five officer as an American soldier, even if he had been able to speak English.
Hitler's Heirs He remained at Stadtkyll, on the German side of the Ardennes frontier, until Aktion Greif had become Action Grief. Then he returned to Berlin. On May 16, 1945, exactly four months after the Ardennes drive began, a small group of German officers walked into a command post of the U.S. 30th Infantry Regiment near Salzburg, Austria. Towering head and shoulders over this bedraggled band was the leader, a blue-eyed giant with a livid dueling scar running down the left side of his handsome face from forehead to chin. He wore a paratroop colonel's uniform, sidearms, and numerous decorations. Strung from a silk band around his neck was the Knight's Cross to the Iron Cross, one of Germany's highest military awards. Speaking in German, he announced to a startled American lieutenant: "S.S. Col. Otto Skorzeny constituting himself a prisoner of war. I would like a safe-conduct pass for myself and my unit to proceed to your division headquarters at Salzburg." Authority to issue the pass was granted. Later that night, sentries at the 15th Infantry Regiment command post intercepted the group as it headed for Salzburg with the 30th Regiment pass. A patrol then was sent out from Salzburg to escort the Germans to the Third Infantry Division's interrogation center. There Skorzeny learned that a warrant for his arrest had been issued by American authorities in Germany. It accused him of plotting to murder General Eisenhower and other Allied leaders. "That's only a rumor," he said of the Eisenhower plot. "You can be sure that if any such attempt had been made it would have succeeded." Arrogant and boastful, Skorzeny took full credit for other spectacular exploits, including the kidnapings of Italian dictator Mussolini and the son of Hungarian Regent Miklos Horthy. He also claimed it was he who smashed the July, 1944, plot against Adolf Hitler. The Mussolini affair brought Skorzeny to Hitler's personal attention and made him a Nazi hero. The day after Benito Mussolini was deposed by King Victor Emmanuel and his generals in July, 1943, Skorzeny was summoned to Himmler's headquarters in the Reich Security Main Office. He was told Der Fuehrer had a special mission for him. Himmler then took him to Hitler's office in the Chancellery.
Toughest Man Alive 87 Although Skorzeny had been doing odd jobs for Himmler for some time, he had never met Hitler before. He was suitably impressed and, some years later, recorded his feelings as follows: "I lived through an unforgettable moment. Here was the man who, more than any other chief of state, had taken so decisive a hand in the destiny of Germany. Here was my master whom I had been following loyally for years. Here was my leader in whom I had absolute confidence!" Apparently Hitler also had confidence in "the toughest man alive," for he placed him in charge of Operation Oak, a daring scheme to rescue Mussolini from his Italian jailers before they could turn him over to the Allies. Italy and the Western Powers signed an armistice on September 3. A secret clause of the agreement was that Mussolini would be handed over as a war criminal. At the time, Il Duce was being held prisoner on the island of Maddalena, off the northern tip of Sardinia. The Germans planned to raid the island with destroyers, U-boats and paratroops. Before they could carry out this plan, Mussolini was moved to a resort hotel on top of the Gran Sasso d'ltalia, highest range in the Abruzzi Apennines. A funicular railway was the only road to the scenic hideaway. On September 13, Operation Oak got underway. Skorzeny landed on the mountaintop aboard a glider, with several German troops and a kidnaped Italian general. The birdmen set down within 100 feet of the hotel, where Mussolini was watching the strange scene from a second-floor window. Italian police outnumbered the Germans, but most of the carabinieri dropped their rifles and fled. Those who remained were dissuaded from shooting by Skorzeny and Mussolini. Holding the frightened general in front of him as a shield, Skorzeny warned the police guards that "an Italian general will be the first to die" if shooting started. And Mussolini shouted from his window: "Don't shoot anybody! Don't shed any blood!" No shots were fired. Placing Mussolini behind him in a tiny Fieseler Storch plane, Skorzeny made a precarious takeoff from a rocky field below the hotel and flew to Rome. A Luftwaffe plane transported the dumpy dictator from Rome to Vienna and he met Hitler two days later in Rastenburg, Germany. For this mission, Hitler promoted Skorzeny to lieutenantcolonel and awarded him the Knight's Cross to the Iron Cross. Skorzeny's next opportunity to be of service to his beloved Fuehrer came unexpectedly on the night of July 20, 1944.
88 Hitler's Heirs Unaware of the generals' plot to assassinate Hitler, Skorzeny boarded a night express for Vienna at six P.M. in the Berlin Hauptbahnhof. He had reached the Berlin suburb of Lichterfelde when security officers boarded the train and handed him an urgent message from Gen. Walter Schellenberg, chief of the Nazi intelligence and security service. Racing back to Berlin, Skorzeny organized the S.S. and S.D. (Sicherheitsdienst, or S.S. Security Service) into battle groups and persuaded tank troops to remain loyal to Hitler. Then he and Major Remer crushed the revolt. Later that night, Skorzeny arrested several of the plotters and sent them in handcuffs to the Gestapo prison in Prinz Albrechtstrasse. In October, 1944, Hitler sent Skorzeny to Budapest to prevent Admiral Miklos Horthy, Hungarian Regent, from surrendering Hungary to the advancing Russians. Horthy already had announced Hungary's surrender in a Sunday morning radio broadcast. But his declaration didn't deter Himmler's ace hatchetman. Posing as an agent of Yugoslav Marshal Tito, Skorzeny arranged a meeting with Horthy's son, Nicholas. The young man showed up with two bodyguards. Skorzeny and two Gestapo agents overpowered them, rolled them up in rugs and shipped them off to Germany. Next, Skorzeny stormed into Hofberg Palace, told the regent that his son had been kidnaped and added that forty-two German tanks were on their way to surround the palace grounds. Horthy agreed to retract his surrender offer in exchange for his son's life. He left the palace in Skorzeny's custody and was driven to Germany for internment. All of these incidents were recounted by the towering tough after his arrest as a war criminal in 1945. But he tried to pretend he had nothing to do with atrocities against American troops. The charge that Skorzeny plotted to kill General Eisenhower was dropped for lack of evidence. In place of this accusation, he was charged with torturing and murdering more than 100 surrendered American soldiers and using their uniforms to outfit his commandos. At his arraignment before a U.S. Military Court at Dachau on June 24, 1947, the chief prosecutor called him "the most dangerous man in Europe today." Asked to explain his remark, Col. Alfred Rosenfeld added: "He is extremely dangerous because there are so many of his men on the outside waiting to rescue him. There is a rumor that they have organized their own underground." The prosecutor's words proved prophetically true.
Toughest Man Alive 89 The Dachau court acquitted Skorzeny and seven of his officers on September 9, 1947, despite evidence that the uniforms worn by his raiders came off the bodies of murdered Americans. Then he was sent to Vienna to face charges of murder, arson and robbery, in occupied Czechoslovakia. Released on bail pending trial, he was returned to Germany for still another court proceeding. He was locked up in the Darmstadt prison for trial by a German denazification court. About this time, Skorzeny and his Nazi pals decided he had spent enough time indoors. And so, in July, 1948, Operation Grab was reactivated. Four Germans in American Army uniforms walked into the Darmstadt prison, presented forged papers calling for Skorzeny's immediate appearance before U.S. military authorities, and marched out again a few minutes later with the scar-faced kidnaper. By the time the ruse was discovered, Skorzeny was riding the underground railway to freedom. He later wrote Frankfurt officials, asserting he broke out because "outside powers, full of hate against me, were trying to disturb the objectivity of my trial." He went to Paris and rented a room in the suburb of St. Germain-en-Laye. He lived quietly there, writing his memoirs, until 1950 when a photographer recognized him and snapped his picture as he strolled on the Champs-Elysees with a pretty brunette on his arm. The pro-Communist newspaper Ce Soir published the picture and demanded his arrest. Almost as soon as Ce Soir hit the Paris newsstands, Skorzeny was on his way to Spain. Meanwhile, Israeli agents were hot on the trail of another Nazi fugitive. They had learned Adolf Eichmann, the Gestapo's chief "Jewish specialist" was still alive in Germany. Apparently realizing he had been spotted, Eichmann got in touch with the Nazi underground. His passage to Argentina was arranged, but he did not want to leave Europe without his family. Eichmann's wife and three sons were living in the village of Fischendorf in the Austrian Tyrol, a few miles from Alt-Aussee, the mountain hamlet where Eichmann and his henchmen assembled after Hitler's death. It was in this same area that Skorzeny surrendered to American authorities, presumably after attending the Alt-Aussee parley. In the summer of 1950, an underground courier called on Mrs. Eichmann in Fischendorf and gave her travel instructions, train tickets to Munich and plane reservations for a flight
90 Hitler's Heirs from Munich to Madrid. Next day she and the children left Austria. Eichmann joined them in Madrid a few days later and they all flew to Buenos Aires. Israeli investigators believe the mysterious courier who contacted Mrs. Eichmann was Otto Skorzeny. The cloak-anddagger colonel was "vacationing" in the Alt-Aussee region at the time. He returned to Spain shortly after Eichmann's wife and sons arrived safely in Madrid. Later that year, Skorzeny popped up in Rome as manager of an export-import firm that served as a front for Die Spinne. Italian security police kept a watchful eye on his activities and reported he received orders from Buenos Aires. By this time, he was a regular contributor to "Der Weg" which hailed him in an editorial as "one who continues to fight the enemy even after the war." In 1951, he went back to Germany to address a meeting of paratroop veterans at Brunschweig. His presence there was reported in the German press but no attempt was made to arrest the famous fugitive. Police and government officials were among those who threw him a "welcome home" party, a typically rowdy affair at which the old Nazi marching songs were sung. Skorzeny was welcomed not only as a returning war hero but also as a literary lion. His book, "Skorzeny's Secret Missions," written during his two-year sojourn in Paris, was a best-seller in many German towns and in the German communities of South America. John H. Lichtblau, former U.S. counter-intelligence agent who was attached to the Counter-intelligence Corps team that arrested Skorzeny in Salzburg, reviewed the book for the New York Times. He reported: "Skorzeny, as he depicts himself in his memoirs, is the prototype of the unrepentant Nazi fanatic." Between 1950 and 1955, Skorzeny made frequent trips between Italy, Spain and Argentina on secret missions for Die Spinne. He acquired a prosperous cement business in Argentina and settled down there for a time. Then he returned to Europe. According to investigators who kept track of his travels, he received his assignments direct from Martin Bormann. Skorzeny, who served briefly as chief of the military sector of the Nazi Secret Service in the final days of the Third Reich, now lives the life of a country squire on a sprawling estate outside Dublin. He still maintains his Nazi contacts and occasionally travels on mysterious missions to Germany, Austria, Spain and other centers of underground activity.
Toughest Man Alive 91 He can no longer be considered "the most dangerous man in Europe" or even "the toughest man alive," but he is certainly one of the toughest, most dangerous agents of the new Nazi International.
One of the best examples of Die Spinne in action is provided by the Case of the Disappearing Diplomats, Franz Rademacher and Karl Klingenfuss. Rademacher was Eichmann's counterpart in the Nazi Foreign Office. From May, 1940, to April, 1943, he was in charge of the Jewish Section of the Internal Affairs Department—Amt III of Department Deutschland. His office dealt with "the Jewish problem" in Germany and Nazi-occupied territories. Klingenfuss was Rademacher's right-hand man. Today he is head of the Argentine-German Chamber of Commerce in Buenos Aires and an important member of the Nazi underground. Rademacher was the author of a fantastic plan to ship Europe's Jews to the island of Madagascar off the East Coast of Africa. When this scheme fell through, he lent his enthusiastic support to the alternate solution—wholesale extermination. His office was in daily, almost hourly, communication with Eichmann's headquarters at 116 Kurfuerstenstrasse. Neither made a move without consulting the other. A lawyer before he joined the diplomatic service, Rademacher became an active Nazi in the early 1930s and then chose a Foreign Office career. He was sent to Montevideo, Uruguay, as secretary to the German Legation there. About the same time, Klingenfuss was appointed to the legal staff of the German Embassy in Buenos Aires. Both men helped organize Nazi cells in South America and both worked as German intelligence agents. In 1949, at the age of 34, Rademacher abandoned his diplomatic post to enlist in the navy. But Foreign Minister Joachim von Ribbentrop persuaded him that bis services were needed in Berlin. For the next three years, as head of the Jewish Section of Department Deutschland, Rademacher's name appeared on scores of documents relating to Jewish deportations and to at least one massacre. All the activities of his office were coordinated with Adolf Eichmann's ambitious program for annihilating European Jewry. After the defeat of France, Rademacher drew up a memorandum entitled "The Jewish Question for the Peace Treaty." 92
The Diplomats 93 The most important part of this remarkable document states: "The peace treaty with France. . . [shall contain] a clause whereby France is to put the isle of Madagascar at our disposal for the solution of the Jewish question, and the approximately 25,000 Frenchmen domiciled there are to be evacuated and compensated. The island will be transferred to Germany as a mandate. . . "The part of the island that is not required for military reasons is put under the administration of a German Police Governor, who in turn is subordinated to the Reich Leader S.S. Otherwise, the Jews will get autonomy in the territory; their own mayors, their own police, their own post and railway administration, etc. "The Jews are responsible as joint debtors for the value of the island. The whole European property owned by them so far is to be transferred for this purpose to a European bank which is to be founded. As far as this property is not sufficient for the payment of the real estate values which change into their hands and for the purchase in Europe of goods necessary for the reconstruction of the island, they will receive at their disposal bank credits from this source. "As Madagascar becomes only a mandate, the Jews settling there do not acquire German citizenship. However, all Jews who are deported to Madagascar are deprived of their citizenship in the individual European countries, effective from the time of deportation. Instead, they become members of the Mandate of Madagascar. This regulation removes the chance that the Jews might establish a Vatican State of their own in Palestine. . . "On the other hand, the Jews will remain under German domination as a hostage for the future good behavior of their racial comrades in America." As a sort of postscript to his proposal, Rademacher added: "The generosity shown to the Jews by Germany in granting them cultural, economic, administrative and judicial autonomy can be exploited from the point of view of propaganda." The Madagascar plan, submitted in August, 1940, received enthusiastic acceptance by the Reich Security Main Office, and a detailed schedule was prepared "for the evacuation of the Jews to Madagascar and their settlement there." Rademacher, Eichmann and their staffs worked on various phases of the plan for more than a year before it was abandoned in favor of mass liquidations. Rademacher claimed that his pet project was designed to save millions of lives. But it is more likely that his reasoning
Hitler's Heirs was closer to that of the maniacal Reichminister Alfred Rosenberg, who said in a 1939 radio address: "It is necessary to gather all the Jews of the world and its continents. . . All of them together should be gathered and settled somewhere on a wild island with a deadly climate, such as Madagascar. Isolated like lepers from the outside world, let them moisten the pits with their sweat and blood, and the more cruel the climate, the more inhuman the work, the better it will be for the Christian world. The obnoxious Jewish race will find itself isolated in a reservation from where there is no return, from where there is but one exit—death." Instead of Madagascar, Nazi concentration camps became the Jewish reservations of no return. Rademacher sat in on the "final solution" conferences where the death camps were organized. At a later conference in Eichmann's office, the chiefs of the two Jewish Sections decided on the sterilization of some 70,000 Germans tainted with "mixed blood." In addition, they recommended "divorce by compulsion" for Mischlingen —married couples with mixed racial or religious backgrounds. Eichmann and Rademacher worked together in gathering human fuel for the death camp crematories. In the margin of a teletyped message asking for instructions in dealing with Jews of the Belgrade Ghetto, Rademacher wrote: "Eichmann proposes shooting." He then wrote his own appraisal of the Belgrade situation: "I cannot imagine that the Jews will go on conspiring once a large number have been shot as hostages." After the war, Rademacher led a charmed life. He was arrested as a war criminal, but Allied authorities apparently didn't consider him a very important one. In the maze of red tape surrounding the Nuremberg proceedings, he avoided trial because he was needed as a witness in other cases, and he avoided taking the witness stand because he was awaiting trial. After a year or two of this artful dodging, the Allies turned him loose. He went to Hamburg and became private secretary to cigarette manufacturer Philip Reemstsma. Meanwhile, his deputy, Karl Klingenfuss, also had been evading prosecution. When Hitler's empire collapsed, Kllingenfuss joined the mass migration of Berlin brass to Bavaria. American occupation troops apprehended him there and sent him to an internment center at Konstanz, on the Swiss border. He was released several months later. By 1950, war crimes investigators had ample proof that both Rademacher and Klingenfuss were major criminals, rank-
The Diplomats 95 ing right alongside Eichmann and his deputies. Their rearrests were ordered. They were accused of complicity in the Belgrade Ghetto massacre and the deportations of some 2 million Jews to Nazi death camps. The indictment described Rademacher as a "fanatical Jew-hater." Released on bail pending trial, Klingenfuss was whisked off to Argentina by the Nazi underground. Dictator Peron welcomed his old friend from the German Embassy with open arms. So did the Argentine Nazi groups Klingenfuss had helped organize. Rademacher, confident of acquittal, did not try to escape. After an incredibly long delay, during which all charges but the Belgrade Ghetto incident were dropped, he was finally brought to trial at Nuremberg in February, 1952. At the request of the Nuremberg Public Prosecutor, West Germany asked Argentina to send Klingenfuss back for the trial. Argentina refused, on the grounds that the crimes of which he was accused were not punishable under Argentine law. Most of Rademacher's trial was devoted to testimony regarding his role in the Belgrade massacre. Unfortunately, most of the eyewitnesses to this atrocity, including the German executioners, were dead. The shooting of 1500 Jews in the ghetto was ordered by General Franz Boehme, military governor of Serbia, on Oct. 19, 1941. Rademacher claimed he left Belgrade the previous day. But the prosecution showed he had cashed large sums of money at the German Embassy in Belgrade as late as Oct. 21. His expense vouchers also indicated he was in Belgrade after the 18th. On one of these vouchers, Rademacher had filled in the question "purpose of journey" with the words "liquidation of Jews." General Boehme was not available for the trial. He had killed himself in Nuremberg prison five years earlier. Among the character witnesses paraded by the defense were four German diplomats who had served with Rademacher in Department Deutschland and were now employed in the Bonn Foreign Office. The court apparently was impressed by these distinguished ex-Nazis, for it let Rademacher off with a sentence of three to five years imprisonment for aiding and abetting the "manslaughter" of the Belgrade Jews. Ridiculously light as this sentence was, the convicted killer appealed it. While awaiting a second trail, he jumped bail and
Hitler's Heirs went underground—as his codefendant Klingenfuss had done. Rademacher remained in hiding for several weeks in Germany, until the furor created by his disappearance had died down. Die Spinne supplied him with getaway funds, a Spanish passport and travel reservations. Robert Kremer, publisher of a neo-Nazi magazine called Die Anklage (The Indictment), drove him to Marseilles where he boarded a French freighter bound for North Africa. Kremer later received a five-month jail sentence for "harbor ing a criminal and aiding his escape." At his trial in December, 1958, Kremer admitted his part in the escape plot but denied knowing Rademacher was a fugitive from justice. "I heard the Allies were after him," he explained. "As an upstanding German, I felt it was my duty to help him." Kremer's magazine was banned by the Bonn government because of its pro-Nazi views. One of its frequent contributors was Johannes von Leers, corresponding secretary of Die Spinne, underground trailblazer and editor of the Nazi hate sheet which served as Kremer's inspiration for Die Anklage. Almost as soon as the old boss disappeared, Klingenfuss announced in Buenos Aires that he was willing to return to . Germany for trial. His belated offer was turned down. German authorities said the case against Klingenfuss collapsed when Rademacher skipped the country. Seven years later, after the Eichmann kidnaping led to charges that West Germany was not trying to catch escaped Nazi criminals, Bonn again asked Argentina to extradite Klingenfuss. And again Argentina refused. Klingenfuss offered to resign as secretary-general of the Argentine-German Chamber of Commerce. The Chamber declined to accept his resignation. One of the Chamber's major duties is the creation of new Argentine outlets for German industries. These industries now employ thousands of German-born residents of Argentina, including hundreds of former Gestapo agents, S.S. thugs and Nazi officials. The Argentine-German Chamber of Commerce, headed by a Nazi fugitive who owes his freedom to Die Spinne, is the Atlantic bridge between the old Nazis who have returned to power in Germany and those who must still remain in exile. While Klingenfuss has emerged as the spokesman for German commerce in the Argentine, Rademacher has been engaged in a more clandestine commerce for Die Spinne. When he left Germany in 1952, Rademacher opened a new escape route for the underground. Die Spinne had de-
The Diplomats 97 cided not to send him to Argentina, because that was the first place German authorities would look for him. Peron did not want to be embarrassed by another extradition scandal. Besides, Nazi leaders wanted to establish a new stronghold outside Argentina, in case the Peron regime should go the way of the Third Reich. So Rademacher set off for Arabia. First major Nazi to skip to the Middle East, he paved the way for hundreds of other mass murderers who were to follow him in the next five years. After a brief stay in Beirut, he moved to Damascus, Syria, and set up the usual import-export agency, a front that had become a Spinne trademark. When Nasser became Premier of Egypt in 1954, Rademacher went to Cairo and offered the services of German specialists for all departments of his government. He helped draft the blueprint for a neo-Nazi dictatorship, complete with secret police, concentration camps and a "department of Jewish affairs." In late 1954 or early 1955, Rademacher flew from Cairo to Buenos Aires to confer with Bormann, von Leers and other Spinne executives at the head office in Avenida Martin Haedo. His report on conditions in Cairo convinced von Leers, if not the others, that the Land of the Pharaohs would be the next Land of the Fuehrers. Ironically, the man who once dreamed of establishing a Jewish state off the African coast was now busy setting up a Nazi state on the coast of Africa.
WANTED BY FRANCE
"Take off your clothes," the Gestapo colonel ordered, "and line up against the wall." The girls thought it was some kind of joke. But one never knew with the Gestapo. Giggling to hide their fright, they did what they were told. Evening gowns, stockings, lace-trimmed undergarments were neatly piled on chairs. When they were naked, except for their high-heeled shoes, the girls stood against the wall. There were six of them—two blondes, a redhead and three brunettes. All young and pretty. All recruited by the Gestapo for a special type of slave labor that was not part of Hitler's "Arbeit Macht Frei" program. "Now we will show you how a German firing squad operates," the colonel said. "Heinz, hand out the blindfolds." Heinz, a tall, lantern-jawed man in the uniform of a Gestapo captain, collected white linen handkerchiefs from his companions—the colonel, an S.S. major, another Gestapo captain and two junior officers. Then, affecting his most sinister scowl, he helped the trembling girls fasten the handkerchiefs over their eyes. The other men sat in comfortable chairs around a table on which champagne bottles cooled in silver buckets. The girls heard the clink of glasses, the rattle of ice, a few whispered words in German. "Achtung!" the colonel barked. "Fertig los. . . Feuer!" At the command "Fire," several small explosions rang out like pistol shots in the quiet room. One of the girls fainted. The others screamed as cold jets of champagne hit their naked flesh. Tearing off the blindfolds, they saw the German "firing squad" facing them with champagne bottles, squirting them from head to foot with bubbling wine. Roaring with drunken laughter, the officers embraced their victims, held the dripping bottles to their lips, toweled wet breasts and thighs with wisps of lingerie. A few minutes later, the party adjourned to the upstairs bedrooms. Surprisingly, the colonel ignored the Nordic-type blondes and selected a shapely brunette. Surprisingly because she was a Jewess and he was Karl Adolf Eichmann, scourge of European Jewry. Champagne firing squads were an Eichmann diversion that 98
Wanted by France 99 witnesses at his Israel trial did not mention. Members of his Paris staff referred to these entertainments as "Eichmann executions." They were the only Eichmann executions that the victims survived. The orgy described above took place in Paris in the springtime of 1942, while Eichmann and his adjutants were preparing the deportation of "Jewish livestock" from France. In charge of this operation were Gestapo Captain Theodor Dannecker and his assistant (later his successor) Capt. Heinz Roethke. Both captains took part in the champagne ritual and several other nocturnal revels at which Eichmann was the guest of honor. Referring nostalgically to those days of free love and free loot, Eichmann once told his Israeli captors: "Our sex lives were the result of Nazi ideology. We swapped wives and had mistresses. It was an entirely free sex life and I made the most of it." But the man who really made the most of what occupied Paris had to offer was Theodor Dannecker. A small, bespectacled man with a nervous twitch and the disjointed movements of a chronic drunk, Dannecker became Paris' chief whoremaster as well as its chief exporter of Jews for the Auschwitz ovens. An unsuccessful lawyer before joining the Nazi Party, he was a pedantic fool, a complete nonentity. And yet his power as Eichmann's Paris representative was such that the highest officers in the German occupation government sent representatives to his weekly conferences. In 1941, Dannecker prepared a 70-page report titled "The Jewish Question in France and its Solution." It stated in part: "From a study of the records collected in Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia and Poland, it was possible to conclude that the center of Judaism in Europe, and the chief lines of communication to overseas, must be sought in France. Realizing this, the offices of great Jewish organizations such as the World Jewish Congress have been searched and sealed." At Dannecker's orders, all Jews were required to register and to wear yellow armbands. He planned to deport 100,000 Jews to Auschwitz by June, 1942, but this figure was never reached. The Vichy regime cooperated. The government of unoccupied France did not. Furthermore, Dannecker's business interests interfered with his Gestapo work. Restaurants, nightclubs and brothels owned by deportees were taken over by Dannecker. He replaced the Jewish owners with French managers and stocked the establishments with the
100 Hitler's Heirs finest foods, potables and entertainment. In exchange for their lives, Jewish merchants agreed to keep him supplied with luxuries that were unobtainable elsewhere. The most beautiful girls, the most talented entertainers in Paris were featured in his revues. Few performers dared refuse a Gestapo command. His customers included wealthy Frenchmen, black marketeers, Vichy and occupation officials, Gestapo officers and visiting Nazi brass from Berlin. Strip shows and nude acts were the most popular offerings of his nightclubs. After their acts, the girls were required to entertain German officers upstairs along with the regular bordello staffs. For his commercial boudoirs, Dannecker enlisted the services of both professional prostitutes and unwilling amateurs. He would pick pretty Jewish girls from the deportation roundups, have them brought to his office at 72 Avenue Foch for "further investigation," then order them to strip and parade before him naked. If a girl passed inspection, she would be asked if she would like "to be spared the journey East." Most of the terrified girls didn't have to be told that the journey East terminated at Auschwitz. Many saved their lives, and sometimes their families, by becoming Dannecker's sex slaves. Those who contracted venereal diseases from their clients were shipped off to Auschwitz on the next transport. So were those who failed to act as if they loved their work or refused to fulfill the perverted desires of Dannecker's colleagues. When Eichmann visited Paris, his vice commander took pains to provide special entertainments. On these occasions, known as "Karl Nights" to Dannecker and his staff, the youngest, loveliest and most sexually adroit fillies in the Gestapo stable were trotted out for a carnal circus that would last until dawn the next day. After a round of nightclubbing, Eichmann and his aides would retire to Dannecker's fanciest brothel. While they swilled cognac and champagne, beauties in various stages of dress and undress would sit on their laps and pretend to be grateful for their caresses. Frequently, Eichmann and Dannecker would emerge from; one of these passion palaces just in time to drive to Drancy railroad station and watch the death trains being loaded for the one-way journey East. Their last Paris conference was on July 1, 1942, in Dannecker's headquarters on Avenue Foch. They prepared a document, under the letterhead of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Security Main Office), Amt IVA, 4b, which stated:
Wanted by France 101 1. First we discussed the entire problem in considering work to achieve the Final Solution of the Jewish Problem in France. The following points were stressed: (a) Work in the occupied parts of France is without difficulty and is clear; (b) Preparatory work in the nonoccupied part of France is being hindered by political difficulties raised by the French government. 2. In view of the order of the Reichsfuehrer S.S. which instructs that all Jews should be deported from France as soon as possible, we see the necessity to exert pressure upon the French Government to enable the necessary prosecution of the work. It is clear that these deportations cannot be carried out in a piecemeal manner. We have transport at our disposal in the occupied part of the country. Therefore, in the occupied part of the country, we can carry out the wishes of the Reichsfuehrer. In this respect we conferred with the chief of the S.D., S.S. Col. Dr. Knochen (Hel- ' muth Knochen, deputy S.D. commander of Belgium and Northern France). We agreed that the Jews deported to their places of destination are to be considered as stateless as soon as they enter the territory of the Reich. That means that all question of property would be dealt with (property of "stateless" persons could be "legally" confiscated). All necessary preparations for the legal basis have to be prepared by our office with all energy because, should there be failure in this respect, very many difficulties will arise from the foreign policy point of view and these must be avoided in clear accordance with the Reichsfuehrer's order. Finally we decided that the deportations (then averaging 3000 Jews a week) should be increased in order to achieve as soon as possible the liberation of France from the Jews. All necessary arrangements concerning the question of transport are in the course of preparation in Berlin. The office in Paris has also agreed that the afore-stated increase should be maintained in the interest of the smooth working of the Final Solution of the Jewish Question. (signed) Eichmann Dannecker
Dannecker and Roethke planned a massive roundup of 22,000 Jews for mid-July. They decided that deportees should be assembled in the Velodrome d'Hiver, a sports stadium on Boulevard de Grenelle. On July 10, Dannecker wrote to his home office in Berlin, asking Eichmann what should be done with Jewish children whose parents were selected for deportation to Auschwitz. "I want your answer by cable," he wrote. "Can these children be deported together with stateless Jews?" Next day, July 11, Dannecker left Paris to inspect "Judenmaterial" collected in the concentration camps of Vichy France. His tour included Fort Barraux near Grenoble, Les Milles near Aix-en-Provence, Camp de Rivesaltes near Perpignan and Camp de Gurs near Pau. He found time for a side trip to the Riviera and a visit to the Monte Carlo casino, which he found to be "full of Jews." While he was gone, Eichmann telephoned Capt. Roethke at the Paris office and ordered him to proceed with the roundimmediately. On July 16 and 17, the Gestapo and Vichy police arrested 12,884 Jews, some of whom had to be released later. Caught in the dragnet were 3031 men, 5802 women and 4051 children. The children were separated from their family ies. About 6000 adults went direct to Drancy, the railroad center where Auschwitz transports were assembled. The rest, including all the children, went to Velodrome d'Hiver. It took five days to clear the stadium. During that time, nearly 7000 persons were confined there like cattle, without food and with a single street hydrant the only source of water. There were only ten toilets. Several babies were born and thirty persons died. Many went "stir crazy" and attacked their fellow prisoners. When Roethke arrived on the 18th, he released some pregnant women, disabled veterans and sick cases. He did nothing for the others. Dannecker returned to Paris on the 19th. He spoke with Eichmann by telephone the following day. Again asked for instructions regarding the children, Eichmann replied: "Die Kindertransporte koennen rollen" (the children's transports can roll). Eichmann told Dannecker to send the children to Drancy, where enough trains would be made available to deport them all by the end of August, Dannecker was warned not to fill boxcars with children, but to mix them with adults so they would be less conspicuous.
Wanted by France 103 The children were taken in buses to Drancy and placed in bare barracks buildings, 100 to 125 to a room. They slept on filthy straw mats, full of vermin. They were ragged, starved, dirty. Many became covered with open sores. Most suffered stomach cramps and diarrhea. The pathetic story of the "Kindertransporte" was told twenty years later at Eichmann's trial. Professor Georges Wellers, Sorbonne scientist and director of the French National Medical Research Laboratory, described how youngsters as young as two and three were dragged screaming from the Drancy barracks and thrown into boxcars bound for Auschwitz, where they would join their parents in death. "The only food was watery soup," the Russian-born professor said. "There were no spoons and the tin cans holding the soup got so hot that the children were unable to hold them. The youngest were too dazed to say they had not had their soup. "Some of them were so young they did not even know their names ... At night they would waken and cry for their mothers, sometimes all the children in a barracks at one time." Dr. Wellers, later sent to Auschwitz himself, organized four teams of women to look after the youngsters. The women tried to clean the children and mend their clothes, but there was no soap and the water for washing was ice cold. On August 13, the Nazis started shipping the children out in lots of 300 to 500, mixed with adults. By the end of August, most of the 4051 children were gone. The last shipment left for Auschwitz in early September. Describing the departures, Dr. Wellers said: "Long before dawn the children would awaken. Sometimes they would be seized by an ungovernable panic, as if they had an intuitive knowledge of what was in store for them. Our teams of women would try to cajole them to come downstairs. But often it was futile. The children would weep and resist. "Then the gendarmes would go up and carry out the children in their arms, kicking and screaming with terror." Not one of the children survived. Some perished en route to Auschwitz, but most of them died in the gas chambers. Belgian railroad workers found twenty-five bodies of children aged two to four in boxcars returning empty from Auschwitz. In October, 1942, Dannecker was recalled to Berlin. He was in trouble—not because of his clubs and vice dens, but because his summer roundups had netted only about 40,000 Jews. Eichmann thought he should have caught at least 100,000.
104 Hitler's Heirs Before saying farewell to his bawdy empire, Dannecker managed to smuggle at least $2 million in cash, gold and jewels out of France. He buried his loot in a Swiss bank vault. The same bank still handles his account under an assumed name. Dannecker was sent to Bulgaria in January, 1943; to Verrona, Italy, later that year, and to Hungary in the summer of 1944. At each post, he collected additional thousands for the Auschwitz transports. Wherever he went, death and misery accompanied him. He continued to dabble in commerical vice, but never again on the scale of his Paris enterprises. Roethke, organizer of the "Children's Hell," succeeded Dannecker as chief of the Paris branch of the Gestapo's Jewish Office. He signed the transport orders that sent at least 22,000 Jews to their deaths. Both Dannecker and Roethke disappeared after the war. Investigators believe they were among the Eichmann bureau chiefs who assembled at Alt-Aussee in May, 1945. Then they went underground. The latest report is that both men are living prosperously in Syria. Next to the "Children's Hell," the worst atrocity committed by the Nazis in occupied France was the Oradour-sur-Glane massacre. On June 10, 1944, exactly two years after the massacre and total destruction of Lidice, Czechoslovakia, PanzerGrenadier Regiment No. 4 of the Waffen S.S. Division Das Reich roared into Oradour, a peaceful village near Limoges. It was a warm, sunny Saturday. Farmers were preparing to start the summer harvest. Villagers were lingering over their noon meal when the S.S. truck convoy rolled in from the Limoges road at 2:15 P.M. The German soldiers wore steel helmets and yellow-and-green camouflage uniforms. Some of them were mere boys. The town crier was told to summon all village residents to the town square with their identity cards. Men, women and children were brought in from the fields, outlying farms and nearby hamlets. Those who resisted or tried to run away were shot. Unfortunately, the raid coincided with a school health inspection. About 190 children who would normally have been free on Saturday were assembled in the school buildings for medical checkups. The S.S. commander told school officials to take the youngsters to the village church "so they won't get hurt." Women were jammed into the church with the children. Men were herded into barns, houses and shops. The mayor was
Wanted by France 105 accused of sheltering resistance fighters and hiding arms. He denied it. A search of the village revealed no Maquis, no weapons. At 3:30, a burst of machine gun fire signaled the start of the massacre. The village was set on fire; 123 homes and 205 barns burned. When the men inside the blazing buildings tried to break out, they were shot down. Some of the wounded were dumped into wells, where they drowned. Then the Germans entered the church. Chasing screaming women and children among the pews, the soldiers clubbed and shot them. Finally, they threw incendiary grenades into the church, set it afire, and emptied their machineguns into the leaping flames. Bodies piled up in the aisles, near the doors, under the windows and in front of the burning altar. All but ten of Oradour's 652 residents were slaughtered— 245 women, 207 children, 190 men. Most of the survivors died later of burns and bullet wounds. Only two are alive today. Major Otto Dickmann, massacre commander, was killed in action at Normandy a few days later. But nearly all the 300 men in his murder squad escaped punishment. After eight years of investigations, French authorities identified 65 men as "most responsible" for the slaughter. Only twenty could be found for trial. They included a dozen Frenchmen who said they were forced into the German army against their will. All twenty defendants were sentenced to death, but only two were executed. The rest had their sentences commuted. Most of them are now free. The commander of Das Reich Division, Lieutenant General Heinz Bernhard Lammerding, was sentenced to death in absentia. Officially, he was never located. But in August, 1960, he was seen at an S.S. reunion in Lower Saxony, boasting of the bravery of the Waffen S.S. When word of his whereabouts leaked out, French veterans' groups and former Maquis demanded his extradition. No action was taken, however. Lammerding is still living comfortably in Germany, along with most other officers of the bloody-handed Reich Division. Before being sent to France in 1944, this division served with dishonor on the Russian front. Among other atrocities, it massacred 920 Jews and Russian officials at Lachoisk, near Minsk. It was one of the worst of the Waffen S.S. "Death Divisions" whose members now claim they were "merely doing our duty like all other loyal soldiers everywhere." Since the first wave of post-liberation executions, France has shown little iacliaation to track down the Nazi monsters
106 Hitler's Heirs who bled it dry. Only a handful of Germans were sent to the guillotine, as compared to 10,519 Frenchmen who were executed for collaborating with the enemy. The temper of the times can be judged by the cases of S.S. Lieutenant General Kurt Oberg, Higher S.S. and Security Police commandant of Northern France and Belgium, and his adjutant, Col. Helmuth Knochen. These two butchers are still alive, despite a total of four death sentences against them. Both men were sentenced to death by a British military court in Germany, then were extradited to France in October, 1946. It took French courts nearly eight years to get around to trying them. A pile of incriminating documents weighing 200 pounds was gathered while they cooled their heels in ChercheMidi Prison, Paris. Finally, in 1954, they were brought to trial for the arrests and deportations of some 100,000 French citizens, including about 65,000 Jews. They also were accused of executing French hostages in reprisal for underground action against the occupation forces. The month-long trial ended, like the previous one, in a double death sentence. In 1958, after numerous stays of execution, President Rene Coty commuted the sentences to life imprisonment. Right-wing German veterans' groups and their right-radical French sympathizers are now agitating to set them free. No legal action at all was taken against many of the most savage beasts of the French occupation. Nazi thugs like Lieutenant Barbie of the Lyons Gestapo, who dispatched fortyone children from a Jewish orphanage to the Drancy transports, not only are at liberty but welcome to return to France on vacation any time they choose to relive wartime memories at the source.
RENDEZVOUS IN RIO
"There were 100,000 Jews in Latvia when the Nazis came," the witness said. "Only 800 survived." Spectators at the Jerusalem trial of Adolf Eichmann gasped in horror. Even the defense counsel seemed stunned by the terrible death toll. Only the man in the glass box retained his icy calm. A Latvian Jew, Eleazer Kashat, was the first witness on the morning of May 5, 1961. He was one of the few who survived the Riga Ghetto massacres.. "People were taken out to dig their own graves," he said, "while Germans stood over them with machine guns. Those who were lucky got a bullet; those who were not lucky fell into the pit and suffocated." Naming a former Latvian Nazi who now lives in South America, Kashat said: "I personally saw him kill women and children." The Latvian's name was not spelled out. Reporters thought Kashat said "Herbert Zuckus" or "Herbert Tuckas." The real name is Herbert Cukurs. He now runs a booming seaplane service in Sao Pauto, Brazil. His Latvian Fuehrer, Major Viktor Arajs, also is believed to be hiding in South America. Another Latvian war criminal in Brazil is R. Stiglics, police chief of Riga during the entire German occupation. Cukurs, Arajs and Stiglics all have been accused of complicity in the Riga massacres. Arajs was head of the pro-Nazi Perkonkrust (Thunder Cross) Party. Cukurs was his deputy. When the Germans occupied Riga, Arajs, Cukurs and Stiglics allegedly helped them liquidate the ghetto. An estimated 30,000 Jews were systematically slaughtered. On November 30, 1941, a date that was to be remembered as Bloody Sunday, the ghetto was surrounded by German troops and their Latvian collaborators. Rows of modern blue Riga city buses lined up outside the ghetto gates. The Jews were marched out, under guard, in groups of fifty. One of the guards shouted: "You're going for a picnic in the country." Placed aboard the buses, the prisoners were driven several 107
108 Hitler's Heirs miles outside the city to a forest near the Rumbuli railroad station. Execution pits ten feet deep and six feet wide had been dug in the soft ground. The Jews were forced to take off their clothes and jewelry. Then they were marched to the edge of the pits and mowed down by machine guns. Dead and wounded alike were buried beneath the crushing weight of more bodies. When the pits were full, the executioners splashed gasoline on the top layers of bodies and set them afire. More than 10,000 persons perished on Bloody Sunday. The action was repeated on December 8. One witness, out gathering firewood for the Wehrmacht, saw two truckloads of German S.S. troops roll into a clearing in the forest and begin setting up a long row of machine guns. When the guns were dismantled that evening, another 10,000 Jews were dead. A third "shooting action," also on December 8, took place in a small birch wood in the Riga suburb of Bikernek. This was to become the graveyard of most other residents of the Riga ghetto. S.S. Brigadier General Franz Stahlecker, commander of Einsatzgruppe A in the Baltic states and White Russia, reported that 27,800 Jews were killed in the various Riga massacres. Other estimates ran as high as 32,000. Many of the murder victims were German Jews who had been transported to Latvia from the Reich. Of the Riga Jewish community, only 4,500 men and 300 women survived the massacres. Most of these later perished in Auschwitz or on their way to the extermination camp. From the few hundred Jews who lived to tell of the Riga horrors, war crimes investigators obtained affidavits charging Arajs, Cukurs and Stiglics with leading roles in the massacres and deportations. Eyewitnesses said they saw Cukurs set Jewish homes on fire and throw children into the flames. They said he raped pretty Jewish girls before shooting them, often attacking them in their homes and forcing their parents to watch. They said he barricaded and burned several Jews in their synagogues. Those who attempted to escape were shot down. A well-known aviator and aircraft engineer, Cukurs was a familiar figure on the streets of Riga as he strutted about in his black Thunder Cross uniform, a riding whip in his hand and a holstered pistol at his side. "Everybody knew him," says a Riga Ghetto survivor now living in New York. "I recognized him when he came to the ghetto on Bloody Sunday. I would recognize him now. He was
Rendezvous in Rio 109 a big, blustering man, a typical Nazi bully who loved to rape and torture and kill." When the German army pulled out of Latvia, Cukurs and his family fled to Germany. Surprisingly, they took a little Jewish girl with them. Cukurs' "adopted daughter," Miriam Keitzner, is now married to a doctor in Rio de Janeiro. Ghetto survivors believe he saved her life in order to protect his own if he should be tried as a war criminal. She would be living proof of his claim that he helped the Jews. From 1943 until the end of the war, Cukurs worked as an aircraft designer at the Aviation Ministry in Berlin. His flat was hit three times by Allied bombs, but he and his family escaped without serious injury. When Germany surrendered, Cukurs convinced Allied investigators that he was a poor Latvian refugee, a victim of Nazi oppression. He was allowed to go to France. From Marseilles, he booked passage to Rio de Janeiro. He arrived in Rio in November, 1945, with his wife, their three children (two sons and a daughter) and little Miriam. He bought a pleasure boat concession on a Rio lake and was doing a thriving business when Jewish refugees spotted him there three years later. Jewish youths and anti-Nazi Brazilians then picketed his boat dock. Cukurs applied for Brazilian citizenship but was turned down when Jewish organizations accused him of war crimes. Newspapers printed their accusations. The publicity finally drove him out of Rio. Moving to Sao Paulo, he bought a seaplane and began taking tourists for air rides over the city and surrounding countryside. He now owns three seaplanes, a house on the outskirts of Sao Paulo and two small ranches deep in Brazil's interior. He makes a good living flying vacationists on sightseeing, hunting and fishing trips. But investigators are convinced his business also serves as a front for the Nazi underground. After Eichmann was kidnapped in 1960, several Germanspeaking "tourists" chartered Cukurs' seaplanes for mysterious flights to the interior. They apparently were high-ranking Nazis, bound for jungle hideouts. Cukurs also dropped out of sight for several weeks after the Eichmann kidnaping. Then he returned to Sao Paulo and demanded police protection. A round-the-clock police guard was assigned to his home. Tough-looking private watchmen showed up at his seaplane station. Now in his sixties, Cukurs is a tall, heavy-set man with close-cropped white hair. He still wears his black Nazi-style leather jacket and the pistol he allegedly used on Riga Jews.
Hitler's Heirs His grown children no longer live at home, but Cukurs and his wife have a new son, a handsome Brazilian boy. Where they got him is not clear. Best guess is that he was a homeless waif whom Cukurs adopted for his own purposes. The child could be used to win sympathy for Cukurs in the event of extradition proceedings against him. Brazilian authorities would not be likely to break up a happy home in order to send a child-loving refugee back to Soviet Latvia. One of Cukurs' closest associates in Brazil is his longtime crony, former Riga Police Chief Stiglics. It is believed that Cukurs arranged Stiglics' flight to Rio after the war. The two men have been seen together in Rio and Sao Paulo. Neither has been seen in public with their old boss, Major Arajs, but it is almost certain that they know where he is hiding. Oddly enough, nearly all the German and Latvian officers responsible for the Riga massacres escaped official punishment. General Stahlecker, whose Einsatzgruppe led the slaughter, was killed by Estonian partisans at Krasnowardeisk in March, 1942. S.S. Major Fritz Lange, commander of Nazi Security Police in Latvia and organizer of the massacres, was arrested in the British Zone of Germany after the war. So was Major Arajs,, his Latvian aide. Both men broke out of their detention prison in the summer of 1959, shortly after it was announced that they would be turned over to German courts for trial. Their escapes followed the familiar pattern of the Nazi underground. Arajs is believed to be in Brazil or Argentina. Lange is believed to be in Africa. Brazil does not compare with Argentina as a haven for war criminals. The Brazilian government did not encourage German immigration after the war and did not protect Nazis who entered the country illegally. However, German communities already were established in the principal cities and deep in the interior. Many of these communities welcomed Hitler's henchmen and provided safe hideouts for them. Today, neo-Nazi cells are flourishing in Rio, Belem, Recife, Sao Paulo; in the states of Goias, Mato Grosso, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sol, and in the jungle and mountain towns along the borders of Bolivia, Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. Martin Bormann and Dr. Mengele had good reason for choosing Brazil as an alternate sanctuary when Argentina
Rendezvous in Rio 111 grew too hot for them. They knew they could count on old comrades there. Another top Nazi who has become a Brasileiro is Himmler's former adjutant, Baron von Alvensleben. According to recent reports, he is living comfortably in a Rio suburb. Israeli agents who went into Brazil in search of Bormann and Mengele believe several wanted men are hiding on Herbert Cukurs' ranches, protected by barbed wire fences and heavily-armed guards. Cukurs himself has lived in terror since Eichmann was kidnaped. And his fears increased when his name was mentioned at the trial. But he can't afford to disappear like the others. His seaplanes are too valuable to the Nazi underground. As a vital cog in the escape machinery, he must remain in Sao Paulo with his pistol and police bodyguards. Interviewed recently by an American journalist, Cukurs declared: "I do not have the blood of Jews on my hands." In far-off Jerusalem, Adolf Eichmann said the same thing.
THE FOURTH REICH
Eighty thousand Germans took part in Nazi mass murders, according to the West German War Crimes Office. At least 10,000 of those Germans are alive in West Germany today. Some are hiding under fictitious names. The vast majority are living under their true identities as respected, law-abiding citizens. Many are active in the Nazi underground or in neoNazi political or military organizations. They are teachers, postmen, judges, prosecutors, policemen, civil servants, private businessmen, diplomats, even lawmakers and federal ministers. The growing concern over Nazis in high places was expressed by the influential Sud-Deutsche Zeitung in these words: "Those that dominate our public life belong to the generation that failed us. . . Many of those who have a share in the responsibility for the terrible evil are personally reinstated in authority and it is they who seem to loom large in the nation's intellectual landscape without being in any way ostracised." American authorities in Berlin stopped giving out information on former Nazis in January, 1960. The U.S. Document Center, which has an almost complete record of all ten million Nazi Party membership cards, announced it would no longer provide the press with background material on war crimes, war criminals or National Socialists. Said a U.S. State Department official: "The information might be embarrassing to the West German government." Why should information about the Third Reich embarrass the Federal Republic? A quick look at some of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer's advisers provides some clues. Adenauer's chief personal aide is Dr. Hans Globke, State Secretary of the Bonn Chancellery. Though not a member of the Nazi Party, he was a high official of the Nazi Interior Ministry and co-author of a legal interpretation of the 1935 Nuremberg racial laws. Those laws, defining a Jew as anyone with a Jewish grandparent, laid the legal basis for the persecution of all Jews in Germany. 112
The Fourth Reich 113 Globke claims he wrote his commentary on the racial laws to help the Jews. He also contends he stayed in Hitler's government to cover his anti-Nazi activities. His defenders, including several Jewish leaders, say Globke's interpretation of the race laws was the most liberal of four such commentaries. But "Bloody" Roland Freisler, Nazi chief judge of Hitler's Berlin People's Court, also praised Globke's interpretation as "exceptionally valuable. . . a must in every law library." Others agree with Dr. Adolf Arndt, of the Social Democratic Party (SPD), who observed: "It is as impossible to make the racial laws the subject of a legal treatise as it would be to write a treatise about the by-laws of an association of criminals or about the house rules of a bordello." Globke's co-author was S.S. Lieutenant General Wilhelm Stuckart, State Secretary in the Nazi Interior Ministry. Stuckart recommended Globke for membership in the Nazi Party, but his application was never accepted. So Globke is technically correct when he points out he was never a Nazi. In 1950, the West German Federation of Trade Unions published an account of Globke's career in a White Paper called "Enemies of Democracy." In 1953, the influential newspaper Der Spiegel charged that Globke and Dr. Otto Lenz, State Secretary for Domestic Affairs in the Chancellery, were trying to create a Goebbelstype "super ministry, . . in which the two most important elements for control of a modern state—information and propaganda— would be merged." Under fire from the German press and pressure from the U.S., Britain and France, this scheme was dropped. Today, however, Globke exercises supervisory authority over the Press and Information Office, the government's chief propaganda tool. He also has jurisdiction over the government's two largest secret service and intelligence organizations. The policy decisions made by the Chancellor, often on Globke's advice, his State Secretary carries out. All Cabinet decisions, all documents for Adenauer, all correspondence with the heads of foreign governments, pass through Globke's hands. As Adenauer's "administrative assistant," he is the most powerful man in West Germany with the single exception of the old Chancellor himself. The Hessian State Prosecutor's office is investigating charges that Globke was instrumental in preventing the escape of 12,000 Greek Jews during the war. According to these reports,
Hitler's Heirs Globke collaborated with Eichmann in the deportation of Greek Jews. Questioned in prison about Globke's part in the Greek transports, Eichmann refused to answer. Another highly controversial figure in the Adenauer cabinet was his former Refugee Minister, Dr. Theodor Oberlaender. An old-time Nazi and former Stormtroop Captain, he was an enthusiastic supporter of Hitler's rape of Eastern Europe. And he participated in the East campaigns as an officer in the so-called Nightingale Battalion, a unit of pro-Nazi Ukrainians. Oberlaender says bis Ukrainians were called Nightingales because they were such good singers. In the summer of 1941, the battalion moved across Poland toward the Russian front. It reached the city of Lvov (Lemberg) on June 30 and remained there through July 6. The Nightingale Battalion was the only Wehrmacht unit of foreign nationals in Lvov at the time, according to Oberlaender's own admission. "In the six days our unit was in Lvov, not a single shot was fired and there wasn't a single atrocity reported," he claims. But according to eyewitnesses and official Nazi reports uncovered by war crimes investigators, at least 7,000 Jews were arrested and executed in Lvov from June 30 through July 6. Witnesses swore Jews were clubbed with rifle butts and bayoneted by Ukrainians in German uniforms. Nor was this the only massacre attributed to the Nightingales. Though it has not been proved that Oberlaender took a direct part in the Lvov atrocities, he was battalion adjutant and as such was responsible for the conduct of his troops. Piles of incriminating documents, from both East and West German archives, were studied by the Bonn District Attorney's office in its investigation of Oberlaender's wartime activities. The Communist East German government published a Brown Paper charging him with war crimes. Folders full of damaging documents were sent to Bonn from East Berlin in support of the charges. Oberlaender claimed the papers were forgeries. But West German experts who examined the evidence concluded, "it isn't all fraudulent." Finally, in 1960, the Social Democratic Party demanded a full Bundestag investigation. Oberlaender submitted his resignation on May 3 and the SPD demand was withdrawn. The fifty-five-year-old Refugee Minister retired on a fat government pension of 3,000 Deutschmarks a month. Before he bowed out of the Ministry, Oberlaender loaded it
The Fourth Reich 115 with former Nazis, many of them former members of the S.S., S.A. and S.D. When he won a Bundestag seat in the 1953 elections, Oberlaender was national chairman of the BHE party—Bund der Heimatlosen und Entrechteten (Bloc of Expellees and Victims of Injustice). Founded by a former S.S. man, this group is full of Nazis, big and small. For political reasons, Oberlaender quit the BHE in 1957 and joined Adenauer's Christian Democratic Union. Since his resignation from the Bonn cabinet, he has resumed his old Nazi ties and is active in several extremist groups including the Sudeten German associations. Other questionable members of the Adenauer Cabinet include: Interior Minister Gerhard Schroeder who became a Hitler storm trooper in 1933 and a Nazi Party member in 1937. Economics Minister Ludwig Erhard, former head of a Nazi institute for industrial research. Justice Minister Fritz Schaeffer, a lawyer during the Hitler regime. Schaeffer was sent to Dachau in 1944 for anti-Nazi remarks. The U.S. Military Government made him MinisterPresident (governor) of Bavaria in 1945, but dismissed him four months later and then barred him from all political activity. The restriction was lifted in 1948 when he was cleared by a denazification court. Transport Minister Hans-Christoph Seebohm, director of Hitler's mining enterprises. He is on the executive committee of the conservative, rightwing Deutsche Partei (DP—German Party), part of the Adenauer coalition government. He also is "federal speaker" of the Sudeten German Union, representing all Sudeten German leagues, clubs and associations. Addressing a Sudeten German gathering on March 27, 1960, Seebohm demanded that they be given "their right to return to the homeland" in Czechoslovakia. Many notorious Sudeten Nazis belong to Seebohm's Union. Before the 1961 elections, there were at least three important ex-Nazis in the West German Parliament. They were Professor Pascual Jordan, Nazi author who became Bundestag deputy from Lower Saxony; former S.S. Colonel Fritz Kempfler, Bundestag deputy from Bavaria—who served three years in prison for war crimes; and Dr. Helmut Schranz, former Nazi Mayor of Offenbach, Bundestag deputy from Hesse. General Hasso von Manteuffel, commander of Hitler's Seventh Armored Division on the Russian front, was a Bundestag deputy a few years ago. In August, 1959, he was charged with manslaughter for ordering the execution of a German
116 Hitler's Heirs soldier who failed to fire at a Russian patrol which had penetrated the Nazi lines. Sentenced to eighteen months in prison by a Dusseldorf court, the General blasted the verdict as an act of "vindictive justice in the Fourth Reich." But justice in postwar Germany has been anything but "vindictive" where Hitler's henchmen were concerned. More than two hundred judges and prosecutors in West German courts are former Nazis. Many of them are the same "hanging judges" who presided over the Nazi Volksgerichtshof (People's Court) in Berlin and the "special courts" of the Third Reich and its occupied territories. These courts sentenced some 45,000 persons to death for such crimes as "criticizing the regime," "failure to report escaping war prisoners," "refusing to show Nazi officials legal identification papers," "delivering laundry to a relative wanted by the Gestapo" and "assaulting a police dog." With so many Nazi judges back on the bench, it is small wonder that hundreds of Nazi criminals tried by German courts have been acquitted or let off with shockingly light sentences. The Ministry of Justice in Baden-Wuerttemberg discovered in 1949 that 61 former Nazis were serving as judges and senior legal officials in that one state. The state payroll also listed 152 former members of Hitler's Gestapo. Dr. Heinrich Becker, Chief Justice of the Bonn State Court, highest court in the federal capital, is an old guard Nazi who served on Hitler's Special Courts and headed the Robert Ley Party Academy in Cologne. Becker failed to disclose his Nazi past when appointed to his Bonn post. He joined the Nazi Party in 1933. He now claims he had to join in order to take his final law exams, but no such compulsion existed in those days. He also claims he was transferred to the Special Courts as punishment because he "sided with the German resistance." Documents from the Nazi Ministry of Justice and sworn testimony of witnesses indicate Becker's present claims are not valid. When "Dr. Sawade," medical adviser to Schleswig-Holstein courts, was unmasked as fugitive war criminal Werner Heyde, investigators discovered a whole nest of Nazis in that northern state. Heyde's identity was known to at least fifty SchleswigHolstein officials, including judges and police commanders. Several complaints had been filed against him and state authorities were notified several times that he was a wanted
The Fourth Reich 117 war criminal. But no action was taken until the press and the Bonn government began asking questions about "Dr. Sawade." After Heyde was arrested, Schleswig-Holstein Attorney General Adolf Voss began an inquiry that was supposed to determine what state officials were involved in "the Heyde affair." In December, 1960, Voss suddenly withdrew from the case. Next day he resigned, on the eve of his scheduled testimony before a Bundestag investigating commiteee. Then it was discovered that Voss was a former Nazi official. He had worked for the Reich Ministry of Justice in a department dealing with political offenses. Deputy Attorney General Nehm took charge of the Heyde case when Voss retired. Dr. Nehm then was appointed Attorney General. And, sure enough, it developed that he too had a Nazi past. He joined the party in 1934, became Nazi prosecutor for Flensburg in 1938, and later served as a Wehrmacht officer. In the early stages of the Heyde probe, several ex-Nazis quietly left Schleswig-Holstein. Among those who departed were Dr. Werner Catel, the euthanasia expert, and Dr. Hans Glatzel, Flensburg professor of medicine. The Bundestag committee later recommended that Dr. Voss, Public Prosecutor Bruno Bourweig and Dr. E. Buresch, president of the Social Welfare Court that employed "Dr. Sawade" be charged with dereliction of duty and harboring a fugitive from justice. Dr. Hans Heigl, head of the State Health Department, was suspended for shielding Dr. Heyde. Heigl promptly accused the doctor who testified against him of "unprofessional conduct with a patient"—a blatant attempt to get rid of an important prosecuion witness. Professor Beyer of the Flensburg Pedagogical Academy also was dismissed when his Nazi past was exposed. Beyer, active in the Nazi underground since the war, was the author of The Fate of Poland, a book praising Hitler's resettlement plans. Schleswig-Holstein Minister President Kai-Uwe von Hassel tried to whitewash the shameful situation there, though he admitted many state officials had known all about Dr. Heyde for years. Defending his administration against charges that Schleswig-Holstein is a Nazi sanctuary, von Hassel told the State Parliament he is "against Nazism and everything it stands for." It is interesting to note that Schleswig-Holstein awarded a state pension to Alf Kurger, former S.S. officer and head of the Aryanization Department in Hitler's Ministry of Economic
118 Hitler's Heirs Affairs. A de-Nazification court in West Berlin later fined him about $3300 as an unrepentant Nazi. While Schleswig-Holstein has received the most recent notoriety as a Nazi refuge, it is not the only simmering kettle of Nazi intrigue. Other German states where Hitler's disciples are back in power include Bavaria, Lower Saxony, BadenWuerttemberg and Hesse. Tn other words, at least half of West Germany's ten states are Nazi nests today. In all ten states, neo-Nazi youth groups, military and veterans* organizations, political parties, refugee organizations and "victims of de-Nazification" are functioning openly with secret support from the Nazi underground. Delegates from seven major Nazi-style youth groups met in June, 1959, at Idstein, a small mountain town near Frankfurt, to merge their forces into one central "German National Youth Movement," The group leaders wore uniforms similar to those of the Hitler Jugend and other Nazi organizations. Represented at the Idstein conference were the Nationaljugend Deutschlands (National Youth of Germany), a Berlin outfit headed by Peter Bernau; Deutsch-Sozialistischer Jungsturm (German Socialist Youth Storm), a black-shirt Saarland group bossed by ex-Nazi Werner Diehl; Deutschwandervoegel (German Hiking Birds), led by former S.S. man Alfred (Viking) Zitzmann; Schillerjugend (Schiller Youth), ruled by Hans Siebrenz; Jungdeutsche Freischar (Young German Free Group), directed by former Hitler Youth and S.S, officer Guenter Hesster; Wikingjugend (Viking Youth), led by exNazi functionary Raoul Nahrath, and Nazionale Jugendgemeinschaft (National Youth Assn.), run by Hans Schulz, an ex-Nazi who came out of the East Zone not long ago. Nahrath is an agent of the Nazi underground and one of the most sinister figures in the neo-Nazi youth movement. In addition to the seven organizations in the German National Youth Movement, there are several other nationalistic youth groups. The most important are Jugendbund Adler (Eagle Youth League), associated with the rightwing Deutscher Block (German Bloc) political party; Junge Deutsche Gemeinschaft (Young German Association), youth branch of another rightwing political party, Deutsche Gemeinschaft; and Junge Kameradschaft (Young Comrades Society), connected to the neo-Nazi German Reich Party. The Nazi veterans' groups—Stahlhelm (Steel Helmet), the Navy League, Federation of German Paratroopers, German Soldiers Association and others—also have their own youth auxiliaries. Members of these groups also wear Nazi-
The Fourth Reich 119 style uniforms and receive military training, including the use of firearms. The various West German youth organizations, nationalistic and militaristic, have a combined membership of about 50,000. For adult fun and games, there are approximately forty Nazi- and neo-Nazi political organizations, ranging from the 16,000-member German Reich Party to the small but fanatic Battle Group Germania, which celebrates Hitler's birthday, his beerhall putsch and all other important dates on the Nazi calendar. Ex-Colonel Hans Ulrich Rudel and Dr. Werner Naumann, both mentioned earlier, are among the many high-ranking Nazis on the Reich Party bandwagon. Party bosses are S.S. Major General Wilhelm Meinberg, former Reichstag deputy and Prussian State Counselor, holder of the Golden Nazi emblem, and still "proud of the fact that I was a Nazi;" Professor Dr. Heinrich Kunstmann, a Nazi since 1930 and a former S.A. regimental doctor; Adolf von Thadden, former Wehrmacht tank officer, and Otto Hess, a relative of Hitler's mad deputy. Arnold Strunk and Paul Schoenen were kicked out of the Reich Party when they were caught painting swastikas on a Cologne synagogue. But this display of righteous indignation by party leaders fooled hardly anyone. The party's official organ, Reichsruf, is one of the most vehement of all the Nazi publications, still spewing the old Goebbels poison. None of Germany's "little Hitlers" call their political parties Nazi or even neo-Nazi for the simple reason that such terminology is illegal. They manage to get the Nazi message across under more innocent-sounding names. In 1955, six of these groups merged and formed the Federal League of Interned and Victims of de-Nazification, a title designed to attract not only ex-Nazis but also convicted war criminals who had served time in Allied prisons. Its goal was to win public sympathy, pensions and other benefits for Hitler's comrades and disciples. The Bonn government outlawed the League in 1959 as subversive and unconstitutional. The same Nazis who founded the League are back lobbying in Bonn today as the Fighting Federation for Freedom and Justice. One of the most powerful lobbies in the federal capital today is run by HIAG der Waffen S.S., extremist association of Army S.S. veterans. Two of its most active officers are S.S. Generals Panzer Meyer and Sepp Dietrich, both convicted
Hitler's Heirs war criminals. It publishes a Nazi-line magazine, Der Freiwillige (The Volunteer). Thousands of S.S. men attend its annual "help find lost comrades" conventions. Illegal marches are played, illegal songs are sung and illegal slogans are shouted. A reporter who sneaked into one of these functions found it was "as if the clock had been turned back twenty-five years and the men were waiting only for an address by Der Fuehrer." Though Hitler couldn't make it, he had plenty of spokesmen there. Besides their HIAG activities, Panzer Meyer and Sepp Dietrich are guiding spirits of Gemeinschaft der Ritterkreuztraeger (Association of Wearers of the Knight's Cross). Though not nearly as large or vocal as HIAG, this outfit is a virtual alumni society of Hitler's military elite. The Federation of German Paratroopers also holds annual conventions featuring Nazi marches and fiery speechmaking. Its guest speakers have included former Field Marshals Albert Kesselring, and Erich von Manstein and former Generals Kurt Student and Bernard Ramcke, all convicted war criminals. Until his death on July 16, 1960, Kesselring headed the powerful 40,000-member Stahlhelm. A military organization dating back to the First World War, the Stahlhelm became a private army in the 1920s and marched with the S.A. stormtroops on the day Hitler became Chancellor. Though it supported Hitler, he feared its might and later put it out of business. At a postwar convention in Lower Saxony, steel-helmeted, jack-booted members marched through the town of Goslar to the convention hall. When labor unions, democratic youth groups, church organizations and anti-Nazi veterans demonstrated to protest the Stahlhelm gathering, club-swinging police drove the demonstrators away. A similar outburst of police brutality occurred in Berlin on October 1, 1956, when Nazi Grand Admiral Doenitz, Hitler's successor as Fuehrer was released from Spandau prison. When reporters sought to interview him, police clubbed them and smashed photographers' cameras. Doenitz today is a power in the rightwing Navy League, but the ageing admiral apparently has steered clear of postwar Nazi politics. Virtually all the Nazi-line political and military groups were united in opposition to the Bundeswehr when the new West German Army was organized in 1955. So was the West German public, but for an entirely different reason. The nationalists and militarists were bitterly opposed to the
The Fourth Reich 121 idea of a democratic German army that would be part of the N.A.T.O. alliance. And a majority of ordinary citizens were against any form of military service, democratic or not, for war-weary Germany. Guiding spirit of the Bundeswehr in its early days was Count Wolf von Baudissin, an intellectual, anti-Nazi military expert. He envisioned a fighting force of "citizens in uniform" and set about scrapping all the old Prussian military methods, including the iron discipline. But eventually it was Baudissin who was scrapped. Bowing to pressure from the far right, Defense Minister Theodor Blank reduced Baudissin's position to that of "parliamentary errand-boy." Marcel Schulte, editor of the Frankfurturter Neue Presse, observed: "Count von Baudissin has been deserted by his Defense Minister and he's fighting with his back to the wall, a sacrifice to the 'old-time-spirit' men." When Franz-Joseph Strauss succeeded Blank in the Defense Ministry, Baudissin's influence virtually disappeared. He was removed from Staff Headquarters and sent into the "field" as battle group commander in the Second Grenadier Division. He was finally promoted to Brigadier General in 1960, two years behind schedule, and in 1961 he was still marking time in the field. Meanwhile, the Bundeswehr has been growing more Prussian with each passing year. The informal double-breasted uniform designed by Baudissin has been replaced by a snappier model, complete with Wehrmacht-style cap, collar tabs and jackboots. In place of hobnails, the boots have metal caps to enliven the sound of marching feet. Training and discipline have been tightened. Under Baudissin, soldiers could wear civilian clothes when off duty and were not required to salute officers outside their own company. Today's Bundeswehr troops must wear their uniforms whenever they appear in public and must salute everyone above private's rank. And the First Sergeant, whose role was minimized by Baudissin, is coming into bis own again as the terror of new recruits. At least 600 former Nazi officers and S.S. men are back in the Army, though the Defense Ministry claims none of them will be given an important post. Defense Minister Strauss, who once said "any man who takes a gun in his hand again ought to lose his arm" is busy building the biggest, best-equipped military machine in Western Europe. In all Europe, it is second only to the Red Army. Strauss has numerous civilian advisers, including many ex-
122 Hitler's Heirs Nazis whose opinions appear to carry more weight than those of the Bundeswehr officers. His chief adviser is former Field Marshal von Manstein, sentenced to eighteen years' imprisonment for war crimes by a British military court at Hamburg on December 19, 1949. His sentence later was commuted to twelve years and he was paroled in August, 1952. Documentary evidence at his trial implicated Manstein in the shooting, hanging, gassing and drowning of thousands of Jews, Poles and Russians; the deportation of Russian slave laborers, and the destruction of Polish villages. As Commander in Chief of Army Group South, he was accused of ordering and taking part in several massacres. Manstein told his officers in the Crimea: "A large part of the population will have to starve. None of the goods that the Fatherland gives us at the cost of privations may, out of a sense of mistaken humaneness, be distributed to prisoners and the population." Another convicted war criminal, four-star General Friedrich Foertsch, is military commander of the West German Army. Now sixty, Foertsch fought on both the Western and Eastern fronts in World War II. He went into Russia as commander of the 18th German Army. Captured by the Soviets at the end of the war, he was charged with participating in massacres and destruction of Russian towns. One of the charges against him involved atrocities in the Novgorod region, where about 8000 civilians were shot or hanged and another 16,000 were deported. Sentenced to twenty-five years in prison, he served ten. He was released in 1955 along with many other German prisoners after Chancellor Adenauer went to Moscow and pleaded for their return. Foertsch joined the Bundeswehr in 1956 as a Major General. He became Deputy Chief of Staff at N.A.T.O. Headquarters outside Paris. He was named Inspector General (commander) of the Bundeswehr on April 1, 1961, succeeding General Adolf Heusinger who became Chairman of N.A.T.O.'s Permanent Military Committee in Washington. Many of Hitler's military commanders, are directing Bundeswehr activities from the sidelines while officially retired on Federal pensions. The Bonn pension system is a frequent target of anti-Nazi groups, but little has been done to push the fat cats of the Third Reich away from the public cream bowl. For Nazi officials who were too young to retire, a wide
The Fourth Reich 123 range of jobs opened up in the federal, state and local governments of postwar Germany. The so-called "131 Law" provides for reempioyment or pensions and social security benefits for civil servants, government officials and professional soldiers who lost their jobs after the war because of Nazi Party membership or because the government bureaus where they worked had been dissolved. Liberal interpretation of the 131 Law has made it possible for thousands of ex-Nazis to reenter government and military service. Hitler's civil servants, from garbage collectors and policemen to judges and diplomats, are back on the public payrolls. In a single six-month period, from December 1949 to June 1950, 23 ex-nazis joined the Federal Ministry of Economics. They included former S.A. officers Gerhard Rauschenbach, Otto Pallsch and Hans Grotjan, all holders of high Nazi decorations. A survey of Foreign Ministry officials in 1952 disclosed that 39 out of 49 held similar posts in the Nazi Foreign Ministry. Except for the move from Berlin to Bonn and the absence of a Jewish Office, this Ministry looks much the same today as it did under Joachim von Ribbentrop. Only a few of the most notorious war criminals are missing. Otto Brauetigam, accused war criminal and top official in Hitler's East Ministry, joined the Bonn Foreign Office and became Consul General to Hongkong. Former Deputy to Alfred Rosenberg, Reich Minister for Occupied Eastern Territories, Brauetigam was charged at Nuremberg with complicity in the extermination of Russian Jews. According to documentary evidence, he ordered that Jews in the Eastern territories should be killed "regardless of the economic consequences." Other Bonn diplomats include Ambassador Werner Junker, former Nazi press chief in China; Ambassador Walter Becker, former S.S. officer; Consul Ritter von Reichert, a Nazi official in wartime Italy; Anton Hellman, Nazi boss of the Polish city of Katowice, and Edwald Muehlen, Nazi official in occupied Denmark. Speaking of Denmark, the wartime Reich Plenipotentiary (governor) for Denmark, Dr. Karl Rudolph Werner Best, is still living prosperously in West Germany. A Lieutenant General in the S.S. and Secret Service, Best also was Ministerial Director of the Reich Security Main Office. In 1946, Best was sentenced to death at Copenhagen for the Nazi murders of Danish citizens, and the deportation of Danish Jews. The sentence was commuted to 12 years' imprisonment in 1949 and he was released two years later.
124 Hitler's Heirs Also home from prison and prospering is Walter Funk, successor to Hjalmar Schacht as Hitler's Minister of Economics and Reichsbank President. Sentenced to life at Nuremberg, he was turned loose in 1957—just in time to join the business boom. Literally thousands of former Gestapo, S.S. and S.D. agents are once more wearing police uniforms. Eleven members of the North Rhine-Westphalia force were arrested in October, 1960, for war crimes. Among them were the heads of the Bonn and Dusseldorf Criminal Investigations Divisions. The chief of the Herford vice squad also was jugged. The police chief of Recklinghausen and a police colonel in Hesse recently were accused of wartime atrocities in the Soviet Union. S.S. Lieutenant Colonel Ernst Emil Heinrich Biberstein, Commander of Einsatzkommando 6 of Einsatzgruppe C, is back at his old haunts after cheating the hangman. Biberstein (formerly Szymanowski) was a Lutheran pastor before he joined the S.S. in 1938. Sent to the Ukraine as head of an Einsatz exterminating squad, he chalked up some 3000 murders. Both Biberstein and his boss, Colonel Paul Blobel, were sentenced to hang for their war crimes. Blobel was executed in 1951, but Biberstein's sentence was commuted and he was set free in 1958. The list runs on and on. It would take a separate book simply to record the names and Nazi records of all the war criminals alive in Germany today. Many are free after serving terms in Allied, prisons. Many face new charges in German courts. Some were never brought to trial and are still in hiding. But thousands beat the law and are living openly under their real names, with no apparent fear of arrest. For fifteen years, the West German government did almost nothing about the Nazi killers living within its borders. Hundreds of those mass murderers believed time and a resurgence of neo-Nazi nationalism had placed them beyond reach of the law. They thought the world had forgotten their crimes. And then, on May 23, 1960, Israel announced the capture of Adolf Eichmann. With the splotlight of world opinion turned once more on Nazi atrocities, Bonn ordered a long-overdue housecleaning. On June 23, exactly one month after Eichmann's arrest was confirmed in Tel Aviv, West Germany announced the arrest of S.S. Lieutenant General Wilhelm Koppe, Higher S.S. and Police Leader in occupied Poland. While details of Koppe's capture were cloaked in official secrecy, the Bonn
The Fourth Reich 125 Public Prosecutor's office said he was seized "several months ago." He was accused of murdering more than 300,000 persons and of helping Eichmann organize his roundups of Polish Jews. In the year after Eichmann was caught more than 150 big and little Nazi butchers were discovered in West Germany. S.S. Major Hermann Krumey, Eichmann's representative in Greece, Austria and Hungary, was found working behind the counter of his drug store in a Frankfurt suburb. He was accused of aiding in deportations and murders of more than 10,000 Jews. Richard Baer, last commandant of Auschwitz, was found working as a forester on the estate of Prince Bismarck near Hamburg. One of his Auschwitz assistants, Emil Bednarek, was frying frankfurters at his Hamburg hot-dog stand when police picked him up. Baer had been using the alias of Kurt Neumann. But his wife was living as Frau Richard Baer in the Hamburg suburb of Bergedorf, where Baer was apprehended at his father-inlaw's home. His forged identity papers had been supplied by the Nazi underground. In January, 1961, S.S. Brigadier General Erich Ehrlinger was charged with the wartime massacre of more than 2000 Lithuanian and Ukrainian Jews. Then Karl Chmielewsky, commandant of Gusen death camp, part of Mauthausen Concentration Camp was brought to trial for mass murder. Originator of "lethal bathing," he had prisoners strip naked in midwinter, then hosed them with cold water until they froze stiff. The prosecution produced his "death books," recording some 10,000 deaths at Gusen during his 1940-43 reign. Evidence at the trial led to the arrest of Gusen guard Heinz Jentzsch, found running a small construction business in West Berlin. Erwin Schuele, head of the War Crimes Office at Ludwigsburg, predicts that 1,000 of the most important surviving "annihilation specialists" will be prosecuted by West Germany in coming months and years. According to Scheule, "the overwhelming majority" of the 80,000 listed mass murder participants are either dead or have been tried by various war crimes tribunals. Other reliable sources, however, estimate that at least half of the 80,000 are still alive and have either escaped trial or been released after serving only a fraction of their original sentences. Interpol, the international police organization, regards Nazi murders in concentration camps and on the Eastern front as
126 Hitler's Heirs "political crimes," not murders. Thus Interpol is no help in tracking down the fugitive war criminals. If West Germany really intends to bring a thousand mass murderers to justice, it will have to work fast. The German statute of limitations bars the prosecution of murders after twenty years. The deadline, therefore, is 1965.
The list of industrial leaders who stood trial at Nuremberg for war crimes reads like a Who's Who of German Commerce. Take the same list and you have a Who's Who of German Commerce today. Krupp, Thyssen, I. G. Farben, Flick, Messerschmitt, Kloeckner-Humboldt-Deutz, Dresdner Bank . . .Almost all the giants of business and finance who bankrolled Hitler's Third Reich are back in business, bigger and richer than ever, reaping huge profits from West Germany's "economic miracle." And some of them are threatening world peace for the third time in fifty years. Working both sides of the Cold War front, the same German firms that are turning out jeeps, trucks, weapons and electronic equipment for N.A.T.O. forces also are supplying vital tools and parts for the Soviet war machine. And a new East-West Axis, potentially more dangerous than the old Nazi-Japanese alliance, is being forged between Germany (East and West) and Red China. Behind West Germany's booming China trade are two sinister figures from Hitler's Reichsministry—Dr. Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht, Nazi financial genius, and Reich Youth Leader Artur Axmann. A German de-Nazification court at Nuremberg sentenced Axmann to three years at hard labor in 1949 as a "major Nazi offender." The court also ordered his property confiscated, except for $1000 war-disability allowance. Nine years later a Berlin de-Nazification court found him still unrepentant and fined him 35,000 DM (about $8500) for promoting Nazi doctrine. Before he broke with Hitler and was shipped off to a concentration camp, Dr. Schacht served Der Fuehrer as Reich Minister of Economics, President of the Reichsbank and Plenipotentiary General for the War Economy. An ardent Nazi before disillusionment set in, he introduced Hitler to the tycoons who provided the Nazi Party war chest. Schacht was tried at Nuremberg for crimes against humanity, but acquitted. Axmann, who held Cabinet rank in matters concerning his 127
Hitler's Heirs youth organizations, escaped from Berlin to Bavaria in May, 1945, with Martin Bormann, Werner Naumann and Hitler's chauffeur. Together, Bormann, Axmann and Naumann set up the Nazi underground. They were, and still are, the Three Musketeers of the Nazi International. Before the Third Reich fell, Reichsjugendfuehrer Axmann instructed leaders of the Hitler Youth and German Girls organizations to proceed to the Bavarian Alps, where they were to organize guerrilla bands in support of anticipated "werewolf" activities. In addition, Axmann entrusted a substantial bundle of Hitler Jugend funds to Willi Heidemann, a Colonel in the Hitler Jugend and chief of the Youth Welfare Service. Heidemann's job was to recruit faithful Nazis for a giant business network that would finance the postwar Nazi underground and work to revive Nazism in the new German government. With this goal in mind, Heidemann started his recruitment campaign early in 1945 in the Bavarian mountain village of Bad Toelz, which was then headquarters of the United States Third Army. He started a trucking business, ingratiated himself with American officers by posing as a dedicated anti-Nazi, then opened branch offices of five large industrial firms in major cities throughout the American and British zones of occupation. All of these offices were staffed with high-ranking Nazis. Heidemann also established several different residences, each of which served as a headquarters for the underground. Other leaders of his business syndicate included Gustav Memminger, chief of the press and propaganda branch of the Hitler Youth directorate; Kurt Budaeus, Major General in the Hitler Youth and an S.S. Major; Willi Lohel, another Major General in the Hitler Jugend. Budaeus and Lohel entered the plot in the fall of 1945 when they organized an underground movement in northern Germany. Picked up for questioning by counter-intelligence officers, Lohel tipped his hand. Further investigation then established that Nazis were back in business all over the American and British zones. Axmann was apprehended in December, 1945, at a roadblock in Bavaria. At first he denied his real identity but it was quickly established through fingerprints. His arrest was kept quiet for several months while American and British agents continued their investigation. In late March and early April of 1946, United States and British troops raided more than two hundred towns in West
The Tycoons 129 Germany and Austria, rounding up about a thousand suspected underground members. Bormann and Naumann escaped the dragnet, but several other leaders were picked up, including Heidemann, Memmimger, Budaeus and Lohel. Some 7,000 Allied troops took part in the raids. Wild gun battles between the soldiers and Nazi fanatics took place in many towns as Allied agents broke down doors and shutters to gain entrance to homes. Allied commanders supplied Soviet authorities in Berlin with evidence that the movement had spread to their territory. Many additional Nazis were bagged in the Soviet Zone. General Edwin Sibert, then U.S. Army Intelligence Chief in Europe, announced the bustup of the business network. He said its aims were long-term and not concerned with sabotage or guerrilla warfare. These latter activities were another phase of the early underground campaign. General Sibert said the Nazis had planned to erect a powerful economic empire that would provide cover and financial backing for the second phase of the plot—subtle long-range influencing of German politics along Nazi lines. Though their initial postwar business venture collapsed, the Nazis did not give up. After the Nuremberg trials, they built then- economic empire. And today they are going ahead with the second phase. One of their enterprises is the China Trade Society, a clearing house for West German industries wishing to do business behind the Bamboo Curtain. Reversing the favorite direction of the American Publisher who supplied his middle names, Hjalmar Horace Greeley Schacht is advising German industries to "go East." His Dusseldorf import-export bank handles most transactions of the China Trade Society. Schacht's money-making magic has been instrumental in building West Germany's trade with Red China from zero to more than $200 million a year. This accomplishment helped Schacht regain his old reputation as one of the world's most important and powerful financiers. Thanks to his help, Red China can afford to laugh at American trade embargoes. Schacht's organization provides Peiping with such high-quality trade goods as steel, machine tools, mining equipment, optical and precision instruments, trucks, cars, farm machinery, nitrogen fertilizers, dyestuffs, chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, plastics, synthetic fibers and sheet iron. Through Schacht's untiring efforts, the Chinese also have obtained scientific equipment for nuclear research—one item that even has the Kremlin worried.
130 Hitler's Heirs Axmann, now only forty-eight, is Schacht's chief aide and the China Trade Society's field representative. He wines and dines visiting Chinese trade delegations and introduces them to the West German industrialists who can supply their needs. He has helped China make commercial contacts all over the free world—in England, France, Austria, Switzerland, Denmark, Sweden, Holland, Italy, Belgium, South America, Canada, even in the United States. The Krupp industrial empire, armorer of Germany for more than one hundred years, also is doing business with the Communist bloc. Krupp has multi-million-dollar contracts to provide the Soviet Union with steel mills, steel products, machinery and technicians who may show the Soviets how to catch up with the West. Present ruler of the empire is Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, great-grandson of Germany's original Cannon King. Charged with war crimes including the "employment" of thousands of slave laborers, many of whom were worked until they died, Krupp was sentenced to fifteen years in Landsberg Prison and confiscation of all his properties. He was released in 1951 after serving only three years of his term, during which he made tools and lighting fixtures in the prison machine shop. Three days before Krupp and his ten directors were set free, U.S. High Commissioner John J. McCloy threw out the confiscation order on the grounds that it was " discriminatory to Anglo-Saxon precedents." McCloy assured an astounded public that Krupp holdings would still remain subject to Allied controls. Since then, Krupp and his attorneys have managed to hurdle that paper barrier. As a provision of his parole, Krupp is not permitted to visit any of his properties in person or to take an active part in their administrations. He runs them through his managing director, Berthold Beitz, and other executives. On March 4, 1953, Krupp signed an agreement with the Allies under which he promised to dispose of all his coal and iron mines and steel mills. He sold all but two major holdings, the Rheinhausen Smelter and the Hannover Hannibal Mine. Krupp's Constantine the Great Mine was purchased in 1957 by Bochumer Verein, a giant steel enterprise, but the mine reverted to Krupp in 1959 when he bought Bochumer Verein. The purchase made him the largest steel producer in West Germany and holder of the largest concentration of heavy industries in Western Europe. Today Krupp holds major interests in more than 150 West
The Tycoons 131 German industrial enterprises. Last year, these holdings earned more than $1 billion gross profit. Among other things, his firms produce steel mills, cement and chemical plants, base chemicals, special steel products, metal drills, Diesel engines, locomotives, cars, trucks, cranes, oil tankers, bridge and building girders, boilers, steel containers and giant shafts for ship engines. On his release from Landsberg, Krupp pledged he would never again make cannons. He has kept this vow for the practical reason that the munitions business is no longer very profitable. As one Krupp executive put it: "You need special equipment for cannons. There is almost no other object that requires a long tubular hole in the middle. After the war is over, you are stuck with a big supply of useless machinery." Instead of cannons, the Kxupp empire now is turning out electronic equipment for pushbutton warfare. And Krupp is reported to be considering manufacturing different types of arms for the N.A.T.O. forces. Another convicted war criminal, Friedrich Flick, is Krupp's nearest competitor for the title of German industrial czar. Alter serving part of his prison term for crimes against humanity, he complied with orders to sell his coal mines and steel mills and decentralize his other holdings. He received 250 million DM (about $63 million) for his properties and began buying stock. He now controls many industries, including Auto Union, producer of cars, trucks, motorcycles and jeeps, and Daimler-Benz, manufacturer of the Mercedes-Benz line of cars and trucks. His Daimler stocks alone are worth at least $200 million. Willy Messerschmitt, who supplied the Luftwaffe with fighter planes, is back in the airplane business with lucrative new contracts to make planes for West Germany's new air force. Even the I.G. Farben trust, though still limited by the decentralization orders, is flexing its muscles once again. I.G. Farben was the original producer of the Zyklon-B cyanide crystals used to exterminate millions of concentration camp inmates. During the war, its drugs were tested on human guinea pigs, often with fatal results. It ran a large plant at Auschwitz with slave labor, working the prisoners until they dropped from exhaustion and were sent to the gas chambers. Before the war, the I.G. Farben empire produced forty per-cent of the world's chemical products. It has been broken
132 Hitler's Heirs up into several smaller firms, but the pieces are being joined again like bits of a giant jigsaw puzzle. In June, 1958, the New York Times reported that "the four companies carved out of the old I.G. Farben chemical empire ... have completed their first joint financing venture— construction of a synthetic rubber plant in the Ruhr. "There has been no official disapproval of the financing venture nor is any West German official ready to say that it indicates the beginning of the reconstruction of the old empire. "The Cartel Office, formed to enforce West Germany's new anti-cartel laws, refused to comment. . . ." Since then, there have been several such joint ventures. And the Cartel Office still has not commented. Both Krupp and I. G. Farben have established special funds to "compensate" the thousands of slaves who labored in their plants during World War II. Krupp is paying 5000 DM (about $1200) to each concentration camp inmate who can prove he or she worked for Krupp in the forced labor program. This is considered a good public relations investment. And it shouldn't cost Krupp too much. Few of his former slaves are still around to apply.
IRON CURTAIN, IRON CROSS
General Vincenz Mueller, founder of the East German Army, was at home in his East Berlin villa when police called on Thursday, May 11, 1961. A black Wartburg limousine pulled up in front of the stately, tree-shaded house. A police van stopped behind the car. There were four uniformed policemen in the van and three plainclothes Security Service officers in the auto. As the security agents marched up to the front door, the uniformed police spread out around the villa. A maid opened the front door and the Red Gestapo men went inside. Moments later, white-haired, 67-year-old General Mueller plunged headfirst from a second-story window. He landed on a cobblestone walk with a sickening crunch of breaking bones. An ambulance removed him to a hospital, where he died next day without regaining consciousness. Police removed his papers and personal belongings. On May 12, the East German press reported his death without mentioning the cause. Later, one paper said he died from a fall in the hospital while undergoing a physical checkup. The story and accompanying obituaries were unusually brief for a man of his prominence. Of the thousands of Nazis who converted to Communism after the war, Mueller—no relation to his fellow turncoat, Gestapo Mueller—was one of the biggest. Commander of the Fourth German Army on the Russian front in World War II, he surrendered to the Soviets in 1944. Then he became one of the Nazi leaders of the Kremlinsponsored "National Committee for a Free Germany," an organization for German officers who wanted to switch to the winning side. Mueller stayed in Moscow until 1948, then returned to East Germany to become Deputy Interior Minister and Deputy Defense Minister in the red government. In 1952, he was commissioned a full general in the People's Police. He spent most of his tune from 1952 to 1958 converting the People's Police into a regular military force. He was the first Chief of Staff of the East German Army he created. His Soviet bosses encouraged him to contact former Wehrmacht buddies who had risen to high places in the West Ger133
134 Hitler's Heirs man government. He made several trips to West Berlin and attended at least one reunion of Wehrmacht commanders in West Germany. Purpose of this mission, of course, was for Mueller to win friends for Red Germany and perhaps pick up a few Western defense secrets. But it didn't work out that way.. His renewed contacts with old guard Nazis apparently convinced Mueller he had backed the wrong team. In 1959, Mueller was unofficially retired. East Germany's leaders suspected him of growing disenchantment with their red rule. He still kept in touch with his West German colleagues, but the commies became increasingly skeptical of his loyalty. He was no longer seen reviewing parades, attending receptions or at other official functions. His Communist pals gave him the cold-shoulder treatment. Security agents were assigned to shadow him wherever he went. Permission to visit West Germany was canceled. The strain became too much for Mueller's wife. She killed herself in 1960 with an overdose of sleeping pills. After her death, Mueller dropped completely out of public life. But the Red Gestapo believed he was plotting with Nazis on both sides of the Iron Curtain. Finally the police called. And the turncoat general jumped —or was pushed—out the window. Another top Nazi believed to be working for the Soviets today is S.S. Lieutenant General Heinz Kammler, Hitler's construction genius. Head of the S.S. Construction Division, Chief Engineer Kammler designed and built concentration camps, gas chambers and crematories, army camps and training facilities, roads and fortifications. His major works included the huge rocket bases on the French coast and Germany's underground aircraft and defense factories. A human dynamo, he was responsible for the deaths of more slave workers than were killed in all other work camps and German industries combined. In the last year of the war, he had thousands of slaves toiling underground like moles to make German war plants safe from Allied bombs. Not since the building of Egypt's pyramids had a construction chief sacrificed so many lives for his projects. One of the first persons entrusted with the secrets of the Final Solution, Kammler inspected the Auschwitz extermination facilities on February 27, 1942. As a result of his visit, an order for two crematory furnaces was increased to five. The underground phase of his giant construction program
Iron Curtain, Iron Cross 135 employed close to 200,000 prisoners on about twenty-five major projects and several minor ones. More than 10,000 slaves tunnelled deep down in the granite rocks of the Harz Mountains to construct new rocket factories and air raid shelters. This project was known by the code name S III. Kammler's slaves worked fourteen hours a day and more under the worst possible conditions. Thousands fell dead on the job. Thousands more collapsed from exhaustion and were shipped off to the extermination centers. His prisoners included Hungarians, Poles, Yugoslavs, Greeks, Russians, Italians aad some Frenchmen. Recalled to the German capital in the last days of the war, he commanded a division in the Battle of Berlin. Then he disappeared. Western intelligence agents believe he was captured by the Russians and sent to Moscow, where he agreed to work for the Kremlin. Reports of underground installations in the Soviet Union, particularly rocket bases in the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, contain construction details identical to Kammler's subterranean works. On the basis of these reports, aerial reconnaissance photographs and other more specific information, intelligence agents are convinced Kammler is working more slaves to death for another dictator. In Prague recently, a top-level Czech Communist was unmasked as a Nazi war criminal. Alois Trefil, member of the Czechoslovak Communist Party's Central Committee, was a former Gestapo agent who betrayed many Czech patriots to the Nazis during the war. When his Nazi past was discovered, he was booted out of the CP. But instead of being arrested and tried for war crimes, he was given a plush job with "Communal Enterprises," a production cooperative in Prague. This unusual treatment of a traitor can be explained by the fact that Trefil knows too much about Communist collaboration with the Nazis. During the war, the Reds frequently informed on members of the anti-Communist underground and thus disposed of possible future opposition. Had he been brought to trial, Trefil could have implicated several Czech CP leaders. No one outside the Kremlin's high command knows how many Nazis hold important positions in the Soviet Union and its East Europe satellites. German scientists have been largely responsible for Russia's nuclear, missile and space achievements. German military officers are serving as advisers to the Red Army. Gestapo and S.D. officers hold staff posts in the Soviet Secret Service.
136 . Hitler's Heirs But the names and Nazi backgrounds of these shadowy figures are closely guarded Kremlin secrets. However, some information is available on former Nazis in East Germany, where the switch from Nazism to Communism is most apparent. Among the many ex-Nazis now working for Walter Ulbricht's Red regime are: Kurt Schumann, chief justice of the East German Supreme Court and a top leader of the National Democratic Party, whose membership consists mainly of rightwing nationalists, former Nazis and former military officers. Schumann, whose Nazi Party card number was 5-777-794, served as a judge on Hitler's War Court. Kurt Lange, high-ranking official of the Ministry for State Security. A former S.S. Lieutenant Colonel, Lange served in the Reich Security Main Office as both a Gestapo and Kripo officer. After the "Generals' Plot" to assassinate Hitler on July 20, 1944, he was assigned to "Sonderkommission 20 Juli", a special commission appointed by Himmler to investigate the plot and question suspects with the customary Gestapo methods. Lange was a chief lieutenant of Gestapo Mueller and one of the very few men Mueller seemed to trust. It seems likely that Mueller and Lange fled together to the Soviet Zone after Hitler died. By the end of 1945, Lange was busy building an East Zone security service. Under Mueller's expert guidance, he became known as the "father of East Germany's Gestapo." Ernst Grossman, member of the central committee of the ruling Socialist Unity Party (SED) and a close friend and adviser of party boss Ulbricht. A member of the old Nazi Sudetendeutschen Freikorps (Sudeten German Free Corps), he joined the Nazi Party in 1938 (Card No. 6-855-320) and became an officer in the S.S. Totenkopfverbandes (Death's Head units, members of which wore a skull insignia). During the war, he was deputy commander of guards at the notorious Sachsenhausen concentration camp in the Oranienburg suburb of Berlin. Professor Dr. Herbert Kroeger, director of the Walter Ulbricht Academy of State and Legal Sciences outside East Berlin, Volkskammer deputy and former judge. A former S.S. and S.D. officer (Nos. 310-206 and 314-484), he was attached to the Reich Security Main Office, domestic intelligence section. He also was a high official of the Nazi State Court. Otto Zander, culture editor of East Berlin's "National Zeitung," former East Berlin city councilman. Zander was an
Iron Curtain, Iron Cross 137 officer in the Hitler Youth and Reichsjugendfuehrung (Reich Youth Leadership). From 1943 to 1945, he was head of the Reich Youth Culture Office. Kurt Herwarth Ball, author and NDP official in Leipzig, former editor of the anti-Semitic paper Hammer. Member of Hitler's Schwarzkorps (Black Corps) and other Nazi organizations, he wrote many Nazi-line articles, short stories and books which were banned in West Germany after 1945. According to the latest available figures, there are 49 former Nazis in the Volkskammer. Nearly all the officers of the National Democratic Party are ex-Nazis and most are S.S. alumni. This party was designed to capture the rightwing and nationalist vote for Communist purposes. Since no real elections have been held in the East Zone since 1946, the NDP has never competed at the polls. The East German equivalent of the Communist Party is the Socialist Unity Party. Though there are other political parties, they are not allowed to compete with the SED. Approximately one-third of the East German Army's staff officers are Wehrmacht veterans, trained in the Prussian military tradition. At least 17 of its 30 generals served in Hitler's officer corps. Though many more Nazis are holding important jobs in the Federal Republic than in the East Zone, the East German Army contains far more Nazi and Waffen S.S. veterans than does the Bonn Bundeswehr. The goose-step and stiff-arm salute have been revived in the Soviet Zone. And so has the legend: "Give a Prussian a gun and tell him to shoot his grandmother—and he will shoot his grandmother." While West German troops are being trained as "citizens in uniform," East German soldiers are being drilled and disciplined with the same old Wehrmacht methods. Most of the provinces that produced Germany's military elite in two world conflicts now lie behind the Iron Curtain. East Zone police and security services also are loaded with ex-Nazis from the ranks of the Gestapo, Kripo and S.D. Secret agents who once spied on the Western Allies for Hitler and Himmler are now doing the same thing for Ulbricht and Khrushchev. Several former Nazis have been arrested in West Germany as communist agents. Arnold Strunk and Paul Schoenen, the two fanatics who smeared a Cologne synagogue with swastikas on Christmas Eve, 1959, and set off a world wide epidemic of anti-Semitic and neo-Nazi outbursts, were known to be in contact with Nazis on both sides of Germany's Iron Curtain. Members of
138 Hitler's Heirs the extremist German Reich Party, they had made several trips to the East Zone to confer with nationalist leaders there. A few days after the Cologne incident, East German Reds were caught defacing a synagogue in West Berlin. It appeared that the Communists had joined forces with neo-Nazi extremists in an effort to embarrass the Bonn government. Such an alliance was nothing new. Hitler and Stalin were great friends until Hitler tore up the Nazi-Soviet Pact and declared war on Russia. Traditionally, German militarists have favored an alliance with Russia to conquer the great land mass of Central Europe. Today, East Germany's unrepentant Nazis look for this alliance to conquer the world.
A tall, dark-haired man strode briskly along a snow-lined street in Vienna's commerical district, his overcoat collar turned up against the cold. He carried a leather briefcase full of printing orders and forms. As he walked, he glanced at his wristwatch. It was a few minutes before two P.M. on Friday, January 20, 1961. The man hurried a bit faster to get back to his office by two. There was no need to be there on the dot. After all, he was an executive now. Manager of a large printing plant. But he had always been punctual, and there would be afternoon appointments to keep before closing shop for the weekend. Two men were seated in a car in front of the printing plant. As the manager approached, they got out and accosted him. "Franz Novak?" "Ja. Ich bin Novak." The manager smiled, a politely curious smile, wondering if the strangers were new customers. When he glanced at their police credentials, the smile froze like the January weather. A few hours earlier, the West German government had offered a 10,000-DM (about $2500) reward for information leading to Novak's arrest as a major war criminal. The reward was announced by the German press and radio. A Vienna radio station mentioned the Bonn offer on its noon news broadcast. An acquaintance of Novak heard the broadcast and telephoned police. Novak's capture was as simple as that. A war criminal "missing" for fifteen years was located in a matter of hours. S.S. Captain Novak was Eichmann's Transport Officer and liaison with the Reich Ministry of Transport. He traveled all over occupied Europe, arranging transportation for millions of Jews to Auschwitz and other Nazi death camps. On the wall of his office in Berlin's Kurfuerstenstrasse was a huge map showing all the railroad connections to the extermination centers. . It was Novak's boast that he kept the death trains running on time. Even then, he was a punctual man. As the end of the third Reich neared, Novak joined other 139
140 Hitler's Heirs members of the Eichmann gang at Alt-Aussee. Then he dropped out of sight. He assumed an alias for awhile. But when the initial hunt for war criminals died down, he resumed his own identity and moved to Vienna. Born in 1913 in the mountainous province of Carinthia, he joined the Austrian Nazi Party in the early 1930s and became a member of S.S. Standarte 89, which assassinated Chancellor Dollfuss on July 25, 1934. After the Dollfuss murder, Novak fled to Germany. His Austrian citizenship was revoked. He got it back in 1957 by simply applying for it in his native Carinthia. The Interior Ministry in Vienna approved his citizenship application. Nobody seemed to recall that warrants for Novak and Eichmann had been issued by a Viennese court ten years earlier. These warrants were still outstanding when Novak's citizenship was restored. In February, 1961, while Novak was awaiting extradition to Germany, the chief spokesman for Vienna's Jewish community charged that many more "little Eichmanns" were running around loose in Austria. Viennese businessman Simon Wiesenthal charged that nine of Eichmann's thirteen Austrian aides were living "openly and unmolested" in Austria. As an example, he mentioned Franz Murer, accused of participating in the Vilna Ghetto massacres. A member of Eichmann's staff, Murer was convicted of war crimes and spent ten years in a Soviet prison. He returned to Austria in 1955 poor and became a prosperous farmer in Upper Styria and head of the regional agriculture committee.' A fully-documented file on his wartime atrocities, containing thirty-four affidavits and photostats of official S.S. records, was submitted to the Public Prosecutor of Upper Styria. Copies went to federal officials in Vienna and to Germany's War Crimes Office in Ludwigsburg. But Austrian authorities showed no inclination to act on this evidence. Franz Dengg, former Gestapo chief of Drohobycz is another war criminal who has returned to his old haunts in Austria. Die Furche (The Furrow), influential Roman Catholic weekly, recently criticized Austria's two governing political parties for "wooing the ex-Nazi vote." According to this publication, government officials have been struck with a "great blindness" where ex-Nazis and war criminals are concerned, Die Furche warned: "Austria's independence and freedom can be threatened by right-wing extremists just as much as by,Communist subversion."
Austria's Underground 141 Austria's former Nazis already are clamoring for another Anschluss with Germany. Former S.S. and Gestapo officers have organized several neo-Nazi political, youth and veterans' organizations. And Austria's large German minority has not been allowed to forget for a moment that Adolf Hitler was an Austrian. War criminal Theodor Soucek, sentenced to death by an Austrian court but later pardoned and set free, is actively engaged in reviving Nazism. He tells his audiences: "Check the main points of Nazi ideology and you will see that it achieved a measure of practical socialism never attained before." The mass exterminations of European Jewry, Soucek claims, "is a lie invented in 1945 to poison and mislead world opinion about Hitler and Germany. "Jewry has never been able to substantiate the figure given for the slaughter of Jews . . . The only known fact about gas chambers is that they served to disinfect clothes. No proof whatsoever exists of their use to exterminate Jews." Soucek recently published a new edition of his Nazi-line book, Calling Europe. One critic called it "a shameless glorification of Nazi barbarism." In Vienna, police raided the headquarters of an organization that was trying to revive a national Nazi youth movement. They found piles of anti-Semitic literature and copies of correspondence with other pro-Nazi groups—including a Ku Klux Klan unit in Texas. At Innsbruck, Jewish university students were insulted by swaggering bully boys. The beautiful old Tyrol capital is one of Austria's most active Nazi centers. The mountains and forests of the Tyrol, the Salzkammergut, Vorarlberg, Carinthia and Styria provided perfect hiding places for Nazi killers after the war. Many of them are still hiding there today. The only difference is that their S.S. uniforms have been changed for the more conventional costume of forester, farmer, policeman and small-town businessman. S.S. Lieutenant Colonel Willi Hoetti, deputy chief of the Foreign Intelligence Section of the Reich Security Main Office, now is a high school principal in Austria. During Eichmann's trial in Jerusalem, a sworn affidavit from Hoetti was read into evidence. It was the sharpest blast fired at Eicbmann by a fellow S.S. officer. Calling Eichmann "the great expediter toward death," Hoetti said that the chief of the Gestapo's Jewish Office had boasted of killing six million Jews.
142 Hitler's Heirs Hoettl, now forty-six, declined an invitation to tesify in person at Eichmann's trial. Had he done so, he might have been prosecuted for war crimes. An aide of S.S. General Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Heydrich's successor as chief of the Reich Security Main Office, Hoettl accompanied Kaltenbrunner to Alt-Aussee in April, 1945. From there, he went to Switzerland to present a Kaltenbrunner peace proposal to Alan Dulles, who was representing the U.S. government. Kaltenbrunner offered to end Nazi resistance if the Americans would make him postwar governor of his native Austria. This crazy scheme was turned down and Kaltenbrunner eventually was hanged for war crimes. To save his own neck, HoettI switched to the American side just before the war ended. He became an important witness against some of the top Nuremberg defendants, including his former boss. The former Gestapo agent also became an agent of the U.S. intelligence network in postwar Germany. Though never formally charged with war crimes, HoettI thought it advisable to assume the name Walter Hagen when he returned to Austria a few years ago. No one knows whether he did this through fear of arrest or simply through love of intrigue. In any event, he now uses his real name. And his colleagues address him as "Herr Doktor," not "Obersturmbannfuehrer." January of 1961 turned out to be a red-letter—or blackswastika—month in the annals of the Austrian police. Besides bagging Franz Novak in Vienna, the cops also collared S.S. Captain Hans Heofle, who was working as a sales executive in Salzburg. Arrested after the war for slaughtering thousands of Polish Jews, Hoefle escaped from Austrian custody in 1947 while awaiting extradition to Poland. Details of his escape were never made public, but it appears certain that it was engineered by his old Nazi pals. Austrian authorities assumed he had skipped off to the Argentine or some other foreign sanctuary for fugitive Nazi killers. But Hoefle realized he was perfectly safe at home. He hid out with friends in the Salzkammergut until the publicity died down. Then he returned to Salzburg and became a prominent businessman. For more than thirteen years, Austria did nothing about the Polish charges against him. And when he was finally apprehended, it was only because the German War Crimes Office had discovered his whereabouts and requested bis arrest.
AMERICA'S NAZIS, DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED
Five teen-age boys were walking home from a dance on a moonlit summer night. Ahead of them, they saw a large banner fluttering from a flagpole outside a house in a quiet, residential street. A huge black swastika in a white circle stood out boldly against the banner's crimson background. "Look at that big Nazi flag!" one of the boys exclaimed. Suddenly a gang of black-shirt thugs burst from the Nazi headquarters. The boys fled. Three of them were caught and dragged inside the house. "Are you Jewish?" one of their captors shouted. . . . This incident did not take place in Hitler's Germany. It occurred on Saturday night, July 8, 1961, in Arlington, Virginia, a peaceful Washington suburb within the symbolic shadow of our nation's capital. The stormtroopers who terrorized the boys were members of George Lincoln Rockwell's American Nazi Party, one of the most vicious and potentially dangerous of America's many hate groups. A thirteen-year-old Jewish boy, Ricky Farber, gave this account of what happened when he and his friends passed the Nazi nest: "All of a sudden about ten guys came running from the house. They were yelling cuss words at us and we didn't know what they were going to do. We were afraid and we ran. "I fell down, but I got up and ran to a woman's porch and rang the doorbell because I hoped somebody would help me. "One of the troopers with a lead pipe came up and told me to come down off the porch or he would come up and get me. He came up, grabbed me and pushed me down the stairs. He twisted my arm behind my back. Another trooper held my other arm . . . . "They took me to the Nazi house and pushed me down on the couch. One got a pair of handcuffs and put them on me. They said they would take the handcuffs off if I wouldn't 143
144 Hitler's Heirs try to escape. That was kind of silly because there were ten big guys standing all around me. . . . "They asked, 'Are you Jewish?' I nodded. "Then someone shouted, 'He's an integrationist.' A couple of minutes later about four or five men brought in two of my friends." Meanwhile, a neighbor telephoned police. Rescued by patrolmen, the boys told what had happened. Rickey's father, Hyman Farber, swore to warrants charging Richard Braun, 26, and Robert Garber, 31, with felonious assault. Two days later, the Farbers received an envelope in the mail. In it was a skull and crossbones design, drawn on a piece of cloth. Beneath the design was scrawled "Juden," the German word for "Jews." Rockwell was not around when his goons attacked the innocent youngsters. But he certainly would have approved of their action. America's Nazi "fuehrer" has been arrested several times—in Washington, New Orleans and elsewhere— and has been run out of New York and Boston for antiSemitic acts. On June 13, 1961, a New Orleans court sentenced him to sixty days in prison and fined him $100 for attempting to incite anti-Jewish and anti-Negro violence. Nine of his stormtroopers received lesser jail terms and fines. A navy pilot in World War II and the Korean conflict, Rockwell later became a commander in the Naval Reserve until his neo-Nazi activities led to his discharge in 1960. One of his lieutenants, John C. Patsales of New York City, later was dismissed from the U.S. Marine Corps because of his ANP membership. In July, 1960, Rockwell and 17 of his troopers were arrested for beating up hecklers at a Nazi rally outside the United States District Court building in Washington. New York Mayor Robert F. Wagner refused Rockwell permission to hold a July 4 rally in Manhattan's Union Square that year. Backed by the American Civil Liberties Union, the "fuehrer" appealed to the city's Supreme Court. Justice Louis J. Friedman upheld the Mayor's action, stating: "No one has the right to advocate race hatred and mass murder." Later, however, the Court of Appeals reversed this ruling and upheld Rockwell's right to speak in a New York City park. The Civil Liberties Union and other watchdogs of democracy appear to regard Rockwell as a harmless crackpot whose bark is worse than his bite. As anyone who has been bitten by
America's Nazis, Domestic and Imported 145 a barking dog will attest, this is a dangerous miscalculation. By itself, the American Nazi Party is a small and politically insignificant group with only about 1,000 members, if that many. However, it is affiliated with many similar organizations in the United States and abroad—including several that are run by genuine Nazis. Rockwell first attracted the attention of the Federal Bureau of Investigation in 1958 after a series of synagogue bombings in the South. Atlanta police arrested five men for blasting a Jewish temple there. In the swastika-decorated home of one of the suspects, printing salesman Wallace Allen, officers found a mysterious letter from Rockwell, then an unknown commercial artist in Arlington. The letter mentioned plans for a "big blast" and cautioned: "Don't let the Arabs get into the act in any way." Questioned by FBI agents, Rockwell said the "big blast" referred to an anti-Jewish picketing demonstration planned for Atlanta. He was less specific about his reference to "the Arabs." At his home, G-men found a printing press and bales of anti-Semitic literature for distribution by the National States Rights Party and other hate groups. Significantly, all five men indicted for the Atlanta bombing were members of the NSRP. Two of the five also belonged to the Ku Klux Klan. The NSRP is a neo-Nazi terrorist group headed, unofficially, by Edward R. Fields, Louisville chiropractor and veteran anti-Semite. It has offices throughout the South; representatives in New York, Illinois, Indiana, Minnesota, Oregon and Washington State, and contacts from coast to coast. As a reporter for the New York World-Telegram and Sun, I was assigned to investigate the Southern bombings and, later, the worldwide outbreak of anti-Semitism set off by the synagogue-smearing in Cologne. I discovered a fantastic web—The Spider's web—of Nazi and neo-Nazi organizations stretching all over the world. Die Spinne's threads in the Americas run all the way from Northern Canada to the bottom of South America. 1 spoke with Rockwell. He boasted of plans to take over America "by 1982." But this Jew-hating braggart turned suddenly silent when I asked about his connections in Cairo. From other sources, I learned he was in touch with dictator Nasser's ex-Nazi agents in New York and Washington. Investigators had a report that Rockwell's anti-Semitic printing business was bankrolled by the United Arab Republic and the Arab League. At least one of the poison-pen periodi-
146 Hitler's Heirs cals was financed directly by Nasser representatives in the hope that its anti-Jewish propaganda would hurt Israel's chances for increased American aid. Another of Rockwell's close contacts is James H. Madole, self-styled "fuehrer of Yorkville," New York City's Germantown. Madole is chief of the neo-Nazi National Renaissance Party. A swaggering, brown-shirted fanatic who worships Hitler as "the George Washington of Germany," Madole has been trying for years to unite all the nation's anti-Semitic and antiNegro groups under his swastika banner. The NRP is linked not only to other hate groups throughout the United States but also to similar groups in South America, Canada, England, Italy, Sweden, Germany, Austria and the United Arab Republic. One of its international correspondents is Die Spinne's secretary, Johannes von Leers. After Leers left Argentine, a carbon copy of a letter he wrote to the NRP was found in his Buenos Aires headquarters. In January, 1960, New York police smashed a Nazi-type gang formed "to get rid of the Jews." At the home of the 21year-old leader, John Wallace, police raiders found six swastika armbands, a large quantity of anti-Semitic literature, recordings of Hitler speeches and Nazi marching songs, and fifteen membership cards for the "National American Socialist Renaissance Party." When Wallace and two of his "storm troopers" were brought to Adolescent Court for arraignment on a disorderly conduct charge, Magistrate Milton Solomon ordered them charged with treason. Wallace gasped at the word "treason" and cried out: "Your honor, I'm crazy. I did these things while I was crazy drunk." The treason charge later was dismissed and the defendants were let off with a lecture and a legal wrist-slap. Police said their hate club was modeled after the National Renaissance Party. A few days after. Wallace and his buddies were arrested, the NRP popped up in another police case. Three young hoodlums were seized by New York cops while trying to break up a Union Square gathering of elderly Jewish men, all former inmates of Hitler's concentration camps. Shouting "Heil Hitler" and giving the Nazi salute, the trio proceeded to push several old men around. But they didn't try any rough stuff with the bluecoats. One of the toughs, Hugh Bruce, then 17, carried an envelope full of anti-Semitic leaflets and a membership card in the NRP. He said he was employed by Russell Maguire,
America's Nazis, Domestic and Imported 147 publisher of The American Mercury magazine and frequent target of hate-group investigations. Bruce and his companions, Seth Ryan and Gilbert DeMillo, drew 90-day jail terms for disorderly conduct. Ryan, 22, is now national secretary of the American Nazi Party. He was sentenced to jail with Rockwell in New Orleans. George Leggett, arrested several times for Nazi-type activities in the Forest Hills section of New York, also belonged to the NRP. Madole, the NRP fuehrer, keeps in touch with other neoNazi leaders through couriers, post office boxes all around the country (in New York, the NRP formerly used PO boxes 208 in the Canal Street station and 238 in the East 85th Street station) and through their publications. The NRP publishes a monthly bulletin billed as "the only Fascist publication in America." Like most NRP claims, this is an exaggeration. There are, in fact, dozens of Nazi-type hate sheets in America. Many of them change names and addresses so often that it's almost impossible to keep track of them. Among the most widely circulated are: The Thunderbolt, official organ of the National States Rights Party. The White Sentinel, published in St. Louis by the National Citizens Protective Association, run by John Hamilton. The Virginian, published at Newport News. The American Nationalist, published by Frank Britton of Inglewood, California, a disciple of Gerald L. K. Smith, Grand Old Man of the American hate movement. The Nazi Bulletin, one of several hate sheets published by Rockwell. Don Bell Report and Closer Up, edited by Don Bell, Pal Beach, Florida. Common Sense, published by Conde McGinley of Union, New Jersey. Common Sense has attacked a long list of outstanding Americans, including President Kennedy, former Presidents Eisenhower, Truman and Franklin D. Roosevelt; Bernard Baruch; Senators, Congressmen and Supreme Court Justices. Publisher McGinley has his own hate group, the Christian Educational Association. A fourteen-room stone building at 530 Chestnut Street, Union, is his home, editorial office, print shop and headquarters. McGinley's backers include a mystery millionaire; a retired toilet goods manufacturer, Benjamin Harrison Freedman, who calls himself an "excommunicated Jew," and retired Admiral
148 Hitler's Heirs John G. Crommelin, who ordered several thousand copies of Common Sense for distribution during his unsuccessful campaign for the Alabama governorship. In 1958, a reporter for The New York Herald Tribune phoned Crommelin at his Wetumpka, Alabama, plantation to ask if he was the "fat cat" mentioned in newspaper reports as the financial angel of the Atlanta synagogue bombers. The following conversation took place: "Admiral, this is the New York Herald Tribune." Crommelin: "Are you Jewish?" Reporter: "What difference does that make?" Crommelin: "What's your name?" Reporter: "Paul Tobenkin." Crommelin: "Where were you born? Were you born in the United States?" Reporter: "Yes, in Chicago, but what difference does that make?" Crommelin: "What school did you go to?" Reporter: "New York University." Crommelin: "Well, that's quite an indictment. Are you a member of the Communist Party?" Reporter: "No. But look here, Admiral, I called to ask the questions." Tobenkin then got in a question about the Atlanta bombing. Before hanging up, Crommelin said: "I had nothing to do with it." Two other retired military officers, Major General George Van Horn Mosely and Lieutenant General Pedro del Valle, USMC, rank with Admiral Crommelin among the top brass of the hate movement. General del Valle is a frequent contributor to The Virginian, edited by William Stephenson. Stephenson also is associate editor of the London publication Northern World, which preaches the doctrine of "Nordic Aryan" supremacy. Nazi newspapers and magazines published in England, Sweden, Germany, Argentina, the United Arab Republic and other foreign lands have a wide circulation among American hate groups. It's all part of the neo-Nazi "international brotherhood" campaign. Propaganda, speeches and insignia are the same as they were in the days of Hitler and Goebbels. The Thunderbolt, for example, carries the S.S. lightning insignia on its masthead and preaches the pure Goebbels gospel. At the start of the Eichmann trial, a single issue carried the following headlines;
America's Nazis, Domestic and Imported EICHMANN TRIAL GIANT PROPAGANDA HOAX JEWS MURDER BRITONS JUDEA DECLARES WAR ON GERMANY THE GREAT LIE OF THE SIX MILLION JEWS MASSACRE ARABS
The Thunderbolt, edited by Edward R. Fields and published in Birmingham, Alabama, frequently is as vehemently anti-American as it is anti-Semitic. It claimed that Americans tortured German war prisoners to make them confess to atrocities that never were committed; that a film showing bodies piled high at Buchenwald actually was a picture of German civilians killed in an Allied air raid on Dresden; that the Dachau "hanging tree" where 10,000 prisoners died was faked by "an American Jew, Captain Strauss." It also maintained the gas chambers and crematories were "built by German prisoners after the war" on orders of American-Jewish authorities. Thundered The Thunderbolt: "It is a perversion of justice that, while Eichmann is put on trial by the Jews for alleged atrocities during the war, the greatest war criminals of all, the Jews that worked to bring that war about and thereby caused the deaths of millions of Gentiles and the mutilation of millions more, go unpunished." It is no coincidence that the Thunderbolt—headline for headline, line for line and almost word for word—is a carbon copy of Die Spinne's propaganda organs in other countries. The National States Rights Party, the National Renaissance Party and the Realpolitical Institute all have adopted the lightningbolt insignia of the S.S. and Hitler Jugend. The American Nazi Party and other groups brazenly display the swastika on their flags, armbands and periodicals. The Realpolitical Institute is run by Maynard Orlando Nelson of Chicago. A former University of Minnesota student, he was arrested in 1947 by Minneapolis police as "fuehrer" of the neo-Nazi Democratic Nationalist Party. In his room, police found swastikas, anti-Semitic posters and literature, a sign reading "Life is Struggle, Struggle is War, War is Life." And a signed "blessing" from Congressman John E. Rankin, Mississippi Democrat, who died in 1960. The Rankin letter, on official stationery of the House of Representatives, said in part: "I need not tell you that I agree thoroughly with every statement you make of your own views on these matters. ... I will stand by my guns and continue to do my best to save America for Americans." A glance at a recent letterhead of Nelson's Realpolitical
150 Hitler's Heirs Institute provides some interesting information on the interlocking directorate of America's neo-Nazi hate syndicate. Under "administrative staff" it lists Edward R. Fields, the NSRP leader, as "superviser" and Matt Koehl of Milwaukee as "leader." Koehl is national organizer for the NSRP. As such, he serves as recruitment officer and contact man between America's neo-Nazi cells and their overseas counterparts. He is the courier entrusted with important messages between leaders of the united Nazi front. Koehl formerly served the National Renaissance Party as a captain of Madole's "elite guard." Another NRP storm trooper, John Lundoff of Brooklyn, is New York regional representative of the NSRP. In recent years, the American Nazis have joined forces with right-wing refugee groups—mainly Hungarians, Croatians, Lithuanians, Latvians and Ukrainians. While these do not fit the slogan "America for Americans," they are an important part of Die Spinne's worldwide web. Not to be confused with the many democratic refugee organizations, the extremist groups harbor many "little Eichmanns" in their ranks. One of them is Laszlo Imre Agh, 53, of Scotch Plains, New Jersey, a bank accountant whose deportation has been ordered by the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service. A Captain in the Hungarian Army that fought on the side of Nazi Germany, Agh was commander of a slave labor camp at Frigyes Barracks near Komarom, an ancient Hungarian city on the Danube. Agh came to this country in 1947 with his wife. He arrived in the Port of New York on November 14 with a regular immigration visa issued by an American Vice Consul at Naples, Italy. He obtained a job as accountant for the National State Bank of Newark and moved into a house at 2401 Westfield Ave. in a respectable residential neighborhood of Scotch Plains. Neither his neighbors nor his employers had any inkling of his gruesome past. But in 1952, when he applied for U.S. citizenship, federal agents investigating his application discovered he was a wanted war criminal. The government later charged Agh with "participating and performing in activities contrary to civilization" and "attempting to degrade, humiliate, injure, maim and kill workers of the labor service battalion" at Frigyes Barracks. Testimony was taken from thirty-three former Frigyes inmates now living in the United States, Canada and Israel.
America's Nazis, Domestic and Imported 151 Fifteen Hungarian refugees testified in person at his deportation hearings in March, 1960. According to their sworn statements to the Immigration Service, Agh beat, tortured and murdered hundreds of slave workers. He was accused of causing twenty-five persons to drown in the icy Danube on a single December day in 1944; sending inmates on death marches in sub-zero weather with inadequate shoes and clothing; ordering merciless beatings and personally whipping the more prominent prisoners, including his own former employer and several rabbis. Witnesses said he often made prisoners do pushups over upturned bayonets until they collapsed on the sharp blades, maiming or killing themselves. Another favorite sport was to make inmates clean camp toilets with their tongues. When he tired of these amusements, he would ride horseback into groups of prisoners, trampling those who fell, horsewhipping others and galloping over those who tried to run away. On other occasions, witnesses swore, he buried prisoners to their necks in the ground and kicked their heads until they lost consciousness. Agh denied all charges. He claimed to be the victim of "known Communists" because of his alleged association with Hungarian Freedom Fighters. But Freedom Fighters who took part in the 1956 uprising were among the most damning witnesses against him. William B. Taffet, special inquiry officer for the Immigration Service, ruled that he fraudulently obtained his 1947 visa by claiming residence in Austria and Czechoslovakia from 1923 to 1945, when he was actually living in Hungary. He also failed to mention his wartime service in the pro-Axis Hungarian Army. Finding him guilty of attempting to conceal war crimes, the Immigration Service ordered his deportation on the ground that his presence was "prejudicial to the best interests of the United States." As this is written, however, he has not yet been deported. During his years in the United States, the Hungarian Nazi became "Doctor" Agh, a pillar of the Hungarian refugee community. Dabbling in Republican politics, he worked for the G.O.P. Presidential ticket in 1952 and 1956 and attended President Eisenhower's inauguration in 1957. Investigators learned he had been arrested in Hungary as far back as 1939 for clandestine Nazi activities. In those days, he belonged to the Hungarian Legion, patterned after Hitler's
152 Hitler's Heirs S.S. This group was even too extreme for Hungary's proHitler regime. In recent years, he has been American representative of Gerneral Andras Zako, notorious chief of the Hungarian Intelligence Service during the Hitler era. Zako, one of the most wanted Hungarian was criminals, is working for the Nazi underground in Germany. As Zako's chief agent in the United States, Agh heads a group of former Hungarian officers known to American and British intelligence services as an important cog in the Nazi subversion apparatus. After Agh was ordered deported, his rightwing pals began organizing fund-raising committees called "Friends of Laszlo Imre Agh." These groups—especially active in Pittsburgh, New Jersey, Cleveland and New York—are raising money to finance his fight to remain in the United States. At a Cleveland convention of former Hungarian Army officers, a resolution was passed urging all members to become "Friends of Agh" and contribute to his appeal fund. Several thousand dollars were tossed into the kitty. The biggest Agh committee, discreetly called "FOLIA," collects its contributions through PO Box 194 in the industrial town of Nutley, New Jersey. Despite the efforts of democratic Hungarian refugee groups to get Agh kicked out of the country, his neo-Nazi supporters are confident that they will be able to stall his deportation indefinitely. As editor Jeno Szebedenszky observed in his Pittsburgh Hungarian-language newspaper: "The case of Laszlo Agh effects the entire Hungarian emigration. If he is deported for his wartime activities, none of us is safe." Another accused war criminal, Andrija Artukovic of Yugoslavia, is living quietly in Los Angeles, safe from deportation or extradition. Artukovic, about 60, was one of the chief aides of Ante Pavelic, the Yugoslav Quisling and eyeball collector. He served in Pavelic's Croatian government as Minister of Interior, Minister of Justice and President of the Croat State Council. Dido Kvaternik's Ustashi Gestapo was part of his Interior Ministry for a time. The Ministry also worked with Eichmann's agents in Croatia. Along with several other members of the Pavelic Cabinet, Artukovic fled to Italy in 1944. In 1948 he came to the United States from Switzerland, entering this country illegally under the alias of Anic. He went to work as an accountant for his brother's contracting firm in Los Angeles.
America's Nazis, Domestic and Imported 153 In May, 1951, federal agents found him running a bookstore at Surfside, Los Angeles. He was arrested on a Yugoslav warrant charging him with the murder of Serbian Archbishop Peter Zimonic of Sarajavo, slain at Jasenovac on January 26, 1942. Extradition proceedings dragged on for almost eight years, during which additional charges were filed. The Yugoslav government branded him "one of the worst of war criminals" and a "common murder" who ordered the deaths of 200,000 Serbs and Jews. Los Angeles attorney George E. Danielson, representing the Yugoslav government, painted a sickening picture of butchery and rape, with Artukovic as an active participant. He said Artukovic was "directly responsible" for the murders of 48 Jewish rabbis and 47 Serbian Oxthodox priests, and for an order to kill all gypsies. Artukovic, father of five, claimed that if these atrocities had been committed, they were not his doing. He said they stemmed from a "civil war" between Croats and Serbs. The American Jewish Congress and the World Jewish Congress offered to present witnesses and documentary evidence "not otherwise available" of his war crimes guilt. The offers were ignored. On January 15, 1959, U.S. Commissioner Theodore Hocke of Los Angeles ruled that the Yugoslav government had presented insufficient grounds for extradition. He added that the war crimes attributed to Artukovic were of a "political character" and as such were exempt from extradition provisions of treaties between the U.S. and Yugoslavia. The Yugoslav case was based mainly on documentary evidence. Most of the oral testimony was by six Croatians now living in the United States. They included several Catholic priests and secondary officials of the Pavelic regime. Consensus of their testimony was that the mass murders in Croatia were directed by Pavelic and Dido Kvaternik, and that Artukovic was "only an administrative official." The same defense was offered later by Adolf Eichmann. Another curious case involves Dr. Ferdinand Durcansky, Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Nazi puppet state of Slovakia. In 1947, the Czechoslovak government found him guilty of high treason and war crimes and sentenced him to be hanged. The only difficulty was that he wasn't around for his trial. His wartime boss, Monsignor Joseph Tiso, President of the Slovak State, was not so lucky. He was hanged. Durcansky fled to Germany in 1945 and was hiding there
154 Hitler's Heirs when the Czech government accused him of war crimes at the Nuremberg trials. After the trials were over and the hunt for war criminals died down, he emerged as a founder of the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc of Nations, consisting mainly of former Nazi stooges whose countries had been taken over by the Soviets. The former Slovak official applied for a U.S. immigration Visa in Munich in 1946 but received no answer. He applied again in 1950 but was rejected on the ground that he was "a Communist." So he went to Argentina and joined forces with Ante Pavelic, Dido Kvaternik and other Nazi collaborators. Die Spinne used him as a contact man between the Nazi underground and pro-Nazi refugee groups in South America, the United States, Canada and Germany. Durcansky reasoned that if the Nazis could be restored to power in Germany, he might eventually become fuehrer of Slovakia. Starting in 1950, Immigration agents began hearing rumors of Durcansky's presence in the United States. He reportedly sneaked in and out of this country several times to address Slovak secret societies. It is believed that he slipped across the border from Mexico or Canada, posing as an American citizen. His first public appearance in the U.S. was on March 15, 1959. He was guest speaker at the 20th anniversary celebration of Slovak independence, held at New York's WaldorfAstoria Hotel under the auspices of the Slovak League of America. The Council of Free Czechoslovakia, a democratic refugee group with headquarters in Washington, sharply criticized his admission to this country. Congressman Emanuel Celler, Brooklyn Democrat, began an investigation to determine "how a former leader of a Nazi puppet regime has entered the United States." Representative Celler said the Immigration Service had no record of Durcansky's arrival. Durcansky claimed he got into the U.S. on a visa issued by the American Consulate in Munich. Before the furor died down, however, he was off and running again. He went to Canada and contacted several pro-Nazi groups there before returning to Munich, where he now has his headquarters. He is Executive Director of the Anti-Bolshevik Bloc and Chairman of its Nationality Committee. Though he has not been seen in the U.S. since 1959, he maintains regular correspondence with both pro-Nazi Slovak and neo-Nazi American groups here. Less than two years after American forces crushed Nazi
America's Nazis, Domestic and Imported 155 Germany, Nazism was revived in the United States by a hoodlum gang called the Columbians. Members wore brown shirts and lightning-bolt shoulder patches, riding breeches and jackboots. They greeted their leaders, Emory Burke and New York socialite Homer Loomis Jr., with Nazi salutes and shouts of "Sieg Heil!" After numerous bombings, shootings, beatings, blackjackings and goosestepping parades through the streets of Atlanta, an outraged Georgia government finally ended the Columbians' reign of terror. Burke and Loomis were sent to prison. At their trial, the prosecution disclosed a fantastic and frightening plot by the Columbians to seize control of the United States government with arms smuggled in from occupied Germany. The weapons and the master plan for a Columbian putsch were supplied by Nazi war criminals, working under the very noses of occupation authorities. These same Nazis are in contact with other American hate groups today. The Columbians and their poisonous paper, The Thunderbolt, were disbanded. But a new and identical Thunderbolt now circulates among neo-Nazi organizations all over the country and in several foreign lands. Columbian fuehrer Emory Burke is back in the hate movement. So are many of his Nazified disciples. One of the most shocking aspects of American Nazism is its appeal to youth. Gangs of teen-age "Nazis" have sprung up in several sections of the U.S. in recent years, usually under the secret sponsorship of professional hate mongers. In New York, young hoodlum George Leggett founded the United Nordic Confederation, using a Nazi dagger with swastika handle to symbolize his authority as self-styled "fuehrer of Forest Hills." When police broke up this gang, Leggett and six other ersatz Nazis were plotting to rob a bank of $40,000 to finance a training camp for stormtroopers, complete with black uniforms and swastika armbands. In their homes, detectives found three rifles; two sawed-off shotguns; 18 knives, bayonets and daggers; UNC letterheads and indentification cards and piles of neo-Nazi literature. Released on bail pending trial, Leggett used his free time to recruit new members. Police caught him passing out advertising material for a periodical called Right, published in San Francisco. The Anti-Defamation League describes Right as "a clearing house of information on extremist, nationalistic and anti-Semitic groups and publications." At this writing Leggett is serving a burglary term in the
156 Hitler's Heirs Elmira, N.Y., reformatory. But he has vowed to continue his Nazi-line activities. The Federal Bureau of Investigation joined New York authorities in investigating an important but unpublicized aspect of the Leggett case. Leggett, a hanger-on of the National Renaissance Party and other established hate groups, had a list of 61 names and addresses including prominent neo-Nazis living outside New York State. He admitted that twenty persons on his list had "sympathized" with his desire to "unify and purify the Nordic race." "There was a certain madman in history who tried to do that," said the judge who sentenced him. "Millions of men, women and children were killed and maimed because of him. If he, with all his backing, could not succeed, how could you hope to do it?" The answer to that question, police believe, is that Leggett had been promised support from the international Nazi underground. Teen gangs similar to the Nordic Confederation have been broken up in Chicago, Atlanta, Milwaukee, Los Angeles and other cities. In Kansas City, investigation of a synagogue bombing disclosed the existence of a large neo-Nazi group in two high schools. From 50 to 80 boys belonged to the two separate but allied clubs, called Nordic Reich and National Socialist German Workers Party, the full name of the Nazi Party. The boys had Nazi-type uniforms, swastika armbands, medals and other accessories. A card found in a school locker said: "Our founder is Adolph Hitler. The war ended in 1945. The ideals of National Socialism have not died." Investigators also found letters and literature indicating the youths had been in touch with some of the nation's most notorious Nazi cells. Indentification cards issued to members of the embryo "Nazi Party" carried these words: "By order of Der Fuehrer [member's name] is a member of the Fourth Reich."
THE ARGENTINE AXIS
The story of the Nazi underground in South America goes back to the days when Hitler first began eyeing the sparselysettled grasslands of Patagonia as an ideal spot for his Lebensraum project. He envisioned a pampas empire of German towns, German farms, German ranches. He dreamed of a great agriculturalindustrial colony on the other side of the Atlantic and vowed to make it the richest of all Germany's territorial possessions. Argentina already had a large German minority, sympathetic to the ambitious goals of the Third Reich. German industries controlled much of the country's economy. German officers held high posts in the Argentine military forces. Almost every city and town had its German-Argentine "friendships societies" in imitation of Hitler's stormtroops and youth groups. Furthermore, many officials in the Argentine federal government were outspoken Nazi sympathizers. Not the least of these was a blustering, rabble-rousing Army colonel named Juan Domingo Peron. Peron paid a personal visit to Hitler in the spring of 1940 and was invited to accompany the Fuehrer on his triumphal march into Paris. Vastly impressed by the mighty Nazi war machine, Per6n promised to set up a Nazi-style state in Argentina if Hitler would help him undermine the democratic government. Hitler promplty agreed. In the next four years, the Reich poured nearly $1 billion dollars into Argentina. Some of if was to finance Peron's power play. Some went to purchase thousands of square miles of fertile grasslands in Patagonia. And some was set aside for Nazi leaders, in case they should have to leave Germany in a hurry. In 1943, S.S. Gen. Wilhelm von Faupel and Willi Koehn, chief of the Latin American section of the German Foreign Office, arrived in Argentina to assist Peron and his "colonels' group" in overthrowing the government of Ramon Castillo. Hitler's envoys traveled by U-boat from Cadiz, Spain. Slipping through the Atlantic blockade, the submarine surfaced off the Argentine coast near Mar del Plata. A tugobat owned by a German-controlled shipping line picked up the two pas157
158 Hitler's Heirs sengers and some forty large wooden crates from the sub. The boxes contained millions of dollars in gold, jewelry and art treasures stolen from occupied countries. The loot was to provide a war chest for Peron and a nest egg for Hitler's henchmen. General von Faupel also brought a trinket for Per6n's beautiful blonde wife, Eva. When they met in Buenos Aires, he fastened a diamond necklace around her throat as "a little token of the Fuehrer's esteem." Masterminded and financed by the Germans, the Argentine putsch succeeded. Peron became vice president and turned Argentina into the most active Nazi center outside Germany. Soon U-boats were making reguler runs between Spain and Argentina, transporting hundreds of Nazis to their new base of operations. General Arturo Rawson, nominal leader of the army coup that toppled the civilian government, admitted to a U.S. Embassy official in 1944 that Nazi technicians and party brass were setting up shop in his country. On January 22, 1945, Reichsfuehrer S.S. Heinrich Himmler notified his police, Waffen S.S. and intelligence commanders that "certain party leaders" soon would be sent abroad on a secret mission. The following month, 340 high-ranking Nazis were ordered to Argentina to pave the way for the thousands who would soon follow. Hitler still hoped for some miracle to stem, the advancing Allied tides, but his top aides were more realistic. Deputy Fuehrer Bormann, Propaganda Minister Goebbels and Labor Minister Robert Ley met in the Berlin bunker on April 12, 1945, and drew up secret plans for a postwar Nazi underground, with headquarters in Argentina. Ludwig Freude, Argentina's No. 1 Nazi, was placed in charge of the initial phase of this project. After the war, while Bormann was leading a guerrilla army in the Bavarian Alps, Freude found Argentine homes and jobs for hundreds of important Nazis, many of them wanted war criminals. The Allies demanded Freude's repatriation to Germany, but Peron's answer was a flat "no." Argentine authorities claimed Freude had been a citizen of their country since 1935. Actually, his request for Argentine citizenship was granted on May 8, 1935, but he did not take the required oath of citizenship until ten years later. His citizenship card was not issued until Dec. 18, 1945, months after the Allies requested his deportation. A wealthy contractor, Freude built troop barracks for Peron and Nazi cells for Hitler. He arranged Peron's Berlin
The Argentine Nazis 159 trip in 1940 and was decorated by Hitler for his services to the Third Reich. Freude's son, Rudolf, also an active Nazi, became Per6n's confidential secretary after the military junta took over. During Peron's 1946 campaign for President, Rudolf handled the campaign funds, including fat contributions from the Nazi underground. Twelve days before the Presidential elections, the U.S. State Department issued a 32,000-word Blue Book that accused the Argentine regime of collaborating with the Axis enemy, espionage, intrigue, deceit, harboring Nazi war criminals and making a mockery of its pledge to the United Nations to "reaffirm faith in human rights, in the dignity and worth of the human person." "In Argentina," the Blue Book said, "the Germans have constructed a complete duplicate of the economic structure for war which they had in Germany." An unprecedented attack on an American nation, the Blue Book created a furor in the U.S. Congress and all Latin American governments. Its pro-Nazi charges almost severed diplomatic relations between Argentina and the United States. Specifically, it accused the Freudes of managing Nazi-Argentine affairs and Peron of giving the Nazis a western hemisphere base for building a new war machine. Peron ignored the State Department blast. Elected president, he set up a Hitler-style dictatorship with the help of his Nazi pals. An impressive array of German talent gathered around the Argentine Adolf. Peron first ignored, then denied the State Department charges. All he wanted, he insisted, was to head a free and democratic government "for the good of the common man." Elected President, he promplty set up a Hitler-style dictatorship, abolished civil liberties and surrounded himself with an impressive array of Nazi talent. A list of his top appointments read like a Who's Who of the Third Reich. Former Nazis bossed the police, military, economic, diplomatic and propaganda branches of the Peron regime and virtually all other major departments. Some of his chief advisers were wanted war criminals. Some of the Nazis had entered Argentina illegally, but most came from neutral countries with forged identity papers and Red Cross passports. For fear of international reaction, Per6n tried to keep his Swastika Cabinet secret. The Nazis received no official titles. They were merely "technical advisers"—with complete au-
160 Hitler's Heirs thority over the government agencies to which, they were attached. Here are some of those who made the easy transition from Hitler's court to Casa Rosada, Per6n's presidential palace: Ante Pavelic, Nazi puppet ruler of Croatia, became boss of the Peronista secret police. On his staff at Buenos Aires Police Headquarters were Dido Kvaternik, his own former secret police chief, and several Gestapo graduates including S.S. Colonel Eugene Dollman, onetime Gestapo commander in Rome; Dr. Hans Koch and Dr. Hans Richner. A former Nazi intelligence officer, who boasts of escaping from the U.S. Counter-intelligence Corps in Germany by paying a lieutenant a $300 bribe, said: "There are so many former Gestapo men in the Argentine intelligence service that it is riskier to tell a joke about Peron in German than in Spanish." Professor Willy Tank, "Hitler's favorite aircraft designer," was in charge of some 350 German technicians at the Cordoba research station where jet fighters for the Argentine Air Force were born. Tank designed and built the Pulqui I and Pulqui II, Latin America's first jet fighters. German air aces like General Adolf Galland, Luftwaffe commander in the Battle of Britain; Colonel Hans Ulrich Rudel and General Otto Bumbach served as Cordoba test pilots and Air Force advisers. Admiral Litzmann, former commander of German naval forces in the Black Sea, was adviser to the Argentine Navy. Under his unofficial command, it became the most powerful fleet south of the U.S. border. German generals whipped the Argentine Army into a goosestepping replica of Hitler's Wehrmacht, complete with jackboots and Nazi uniforms. German scientists worked on atomic research projects, trying unsuccessfully to build an Argentine A-bomb. Heinrich Doerge, former president of Hitler's Reichsbank of industry, was technical adviser to Peron's mighty Central Bank. Empowered to seize every bank deposit in the nation and approve every loan, the Central Bank held an economic axe over the head of every individual and business in Argentina. The Peronist diplomatic corps had such expert advisers as Dr. Karl Klingenfuss, Dr. Hans Theiss, Dr. Bruno Leist and Dr. Alfred Ragalsky, all former officials of the Nazi Foreign Office. Klingenfuss had been deputy director of Department Deutschland, which handled "Jewish affairs." Johannes von Leers, one of the most fanatic anti-Semites
The Argentine Nazis 161 in the Goebbels Propaganda Ministry, was Peron's adviser on propaganda and "public relations." Another Goebbels' lackey, Wilfred von Oven, was editor of Deutsche La Plata Zeitung, one of several German dailies that carried on the old party line in the new homeland. German firms such as Siemens, Bau-Union, Gruend and Bilfiner, supposedly "confiscated" by Argentine authorities during the war, received fat public works contracts. New highways, schools, airports, bridges, public buildings, housing projects and military installations helped put German industry back on its feet. These firms supplied postwar jobs for thousands of Germans who were channeled to Argentina by the Nazi underground. At first, the war criminals remained in the background. Then, as Peron's iron grip tightened and crushed all democratic opposition, the mass murderers came out of hiding. Dr. Josef Mengele, the Auschwitz extermination expert, opened a chemical laboratory in Buenos Aires without even bothering to affect an alias. Martin Bormann, slightly more discreet, left his Patagonian hideaway and moved to the capital with his pistol-packing entourage. He rented an office at 868 Avenido Martin Haedo, in downtown Buenos Aires. This inconspicuous suite, with the name of a GermanArgentine export-import firm on the door, was the nest from which Die Spinne wove its worldwide web. By 1949, Die Spinne's global activities had attracted the attention of intelligence services and newspapers in several nations. In Germany, the Koelnische Rundschau disclosed that many convicted Norwegian Quislings and their counterparts in other European lands had joined German war criminals in the Argentine. The Jewish Chronicle said the mass migration was "directed by a powerful underground organization" with headquarters in Buenos Aires. Reynolds News sent an investigator to Rome late in 1950 to check on Nazi activities there. He uncovered a branch office of Die Spinne. Camouflaged as an Argentine import-export agency, it was run by the famous Colonel Otto Skorzeny, Hitler's commando chief. Skorzeny reportedly arranged the escapes of many Nazi criminals who took off for Argentina from Rome and Madrid. A fugitive from justice himself, Skorzeny apparently was the chief European dispatcher for the underground railway. The year 1950 was the target date for an international revival of Nazism. From their Argentine sanctuary, the spidery
162 Hitler's Heirs Bormann and his lieutenants sent out orders for a test of strength. The call to arms was sounded in Der Weg (Way), Die Spinne's official mouthpiece, edited by von Leers and published by Duerer Verlag, a Buenos Aires printing firm headed by Eberhard Fritsch, former leader of the Argentine Hitler Youth. To help rekindle the Nazi bonfires, Fritsch also published new editions of Mein Kampf in German and Spanish, memoirs of high-placed Nazi officials and a steady stream of poison pen propaganda. Sir Oswald Mosley, Hitler's British disciple, flew to Buenos Aires early in the year for a top-level conference at Die Spinne headquarters. Then he hurried to Italy with a crackpot proposal for former Italian Fascists climb on the retooled Nazi bandwagon. Mussolini's old cronies wanted no part of another Nazi alliance. But Die Spinne wasn't prepared to take "no" for an answer. In April, rightwing Argentine journalists Tullio Abelli and Francesco di Giglio arrived in Rome with a "manifesto" urging all neo-Nazi and neo-fascist groups to unite. Six months later, youth groups from nine countries, including Argentina and Spain, held a neo-Nazi congress in Rome. Delegates greeted Anna Maria Mussolini, Il Duce's oldest daughter, with wild cheers and a fascist salute. But police booted her out of Italy and she went to visit her brother, Vittorio, in Argentina. At about the same time, a branch of the Nazi underground called the International Confederation of Non-Marxist Socialists held a conference in Madrid. Among those present was the busy Colonel Skorzeny. Conventioneering Nazis then held a fourteen-nation parley at Malmoe, Sweden, another European terminal for the underground railway. The vast intrigue of 1950 even extended to Africa, both North and South, and Asia. India's intelligence service turned up evidence linking the Hindu Mahasabha, rightwing extremist party involved in Mahatma Gandhi's assassination, to Die Spinne. Underground couriers had transported Nazi funds from Argentina to Tangier, where the money was given to Mahasabha agents. The exact purpose of this mysterious transaction was never discovered. Apparently it was part of the overall Nazi plan to win as many friends and influence as many people as possible. Despite all the activity, the 1950 effort to form a Nazi International never quite got off the ground. Police, counter-
The Argentine Nazis 163 intelligence agents, newspapers and anti-Nazi public officials showed Die Spinne that the world outside Argentina hadn't forgotten or forgiven the horrors of World War II. No major move of the Nazi underground went undetected that fateful year - except the steady movement of the underground railway. Skorzeny kept the Escape Express rolling and arranged reservations for four special passengers who no longer used their family name, Eichmann. Adolf Eichmann, his wife and sons were greeted at the Buenos Aires airport by one of his old partners in Mass Murder Inc., Ante Pavelic. As a secret police official, Pavelic had no trouble whisking the new arrivals through Customs and Immigration. Then he drove them to a downtown hotel in his official limousine. Eichmann's first Argentine papers, in the name of Richard Klementz, were issued by Pavelic on October 2, 1950. Next, Die Spinne got him a job with Capri engineering firm, a German-Argentine enterprise that employed many S.S. veterans and fugitive war criminals. To avoid attracting attention in the Argentine capital, Eichmann was sent to a remote hydro-electric project at Salta, then to Tucuman, a city of about 200,000 in northwest Argentina not far from the borders of Chile, Bolivia and Paraguay. Eichmann checked in at Tucuman district police headquarters, where he- was registered as Ricardo Klementz. He also was fingerprinted, but his prints later disappeared from police files at both Tucuman and Buenos Aires. Eichmann wasn't lonely in his new hideout. His family joined him and he found many old Nazi pals, including former members of his own Gestapo staff, among the city's large German population. In 1954, rumors of a pending revolt against Peron caused Eichmann to move again. He made two quick trips to Paraguay to survey possible escape routes. Apparently, he decided Paraguay was not the ideal place for a Nazi killer. When the Argentine revolt finally came in 1955, the Eichmanns fled north to Bolivia, where there were several Nazi strongholds. Other wanted Nazis headed for the mountains and jungles of Brazil, Chile, Peru and Uruguay. Most of them returned to Buenos Aires a year later and remained there, conducting business as usual, until Eichmann's capture in 1960 caused another mass vanishing act. A few left the Argentine for good after Peron's downfall. In this group was Johannes von Leers. Interviewed on his arrival in Egypt, the new Nazi Promised Land, von Leers had this to say of the country that sheltered
Hitler's Heirs him for ten years: "Argentina is finished as a superstate. After Peron's fall, the Jews and the clerics, the vultures and the ravens, took over."
THE NEW AFRIKA KORPS
The underground route to Arabia, opened by Franz Rademacher in 1952 and General Otto Remer in 1953, soon looked like rush hour on the Autobahn. By mid-1957, more than 6000 "Arabized" Nazis were on the Cairo government payroll. Former Gestapo and S.D. officers were running Egypt's police, security and intelligence services. Waffen S.S. and Luftwaffe alumni were training Egyptian soldiers and pilots. Disciples of Dr. Goebbels were turning out anti-Jewish propaganda in Arabic. Fugitive killers from Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau and Treblinka were building new concentration camps. Doctors who brought death to millions were supervising government hospitals. Nazi judges, economists, scientists, diplomats and technicians were putting their skills to work for an Arab Adolf, now that the Argentine carbon copy and the original were gone. As Nasser's Nazi advisers piled up like the pyramids, with the worst war criminals on top, it seemed for a time that they might create a stumbling block in loan negotiations with the United States and the Soviet Union. Neither side in the Cold War was pleased by the Cairo strongman's choice of assistants. The Soviets, in fact, told him bluntly to get rid of his Nazi aides. Nasser promised to clean house. And soon many notorious Nazis disappeared from Egypt's air-conditioned government offices. But they didn't go very far. When Nasser created his United Arab Republic in 1958, he simply shifted a few thousand Germans to Syria. He reasoned they would be as useful in Damascus as in Cairo, and much less conspicuous. As the new U.A.R. flag was unfurled, Western observers noted that—except for two green stars in the center—it was almost identical to the red-white-black banner of Hitler's Reich. Nasser's State Security Service today employs more Nazis than any other branch of his Arab federation. Its structure is strikingly similar to that of Hitler's Schutz Staffel, the infam165
166 Hitler's Heirs ous S.S. guard detachment. Its Cairo headquarters is modeled after the Reich Security Main Office. The Security Service consists of three main divisions— regular urban and rural police units; special Army units, a streamlined version of Himmler's Waffen S.S. troops and Einsatzgruppen (Action Groups); and the plainclothes division, Egyptian equivalent of the Nazi Sicherheitspolizei, or security police. This last and most fearsome group includes Nasser's Gestapo, counter-intelligence and foreign intelligence branches. Also Department Israel, a modern replica of Adolf Eichmann's Amt IVA 4b. While the official commander of the State Security Service is an Egyptian, the real boss is Lieutenant Colonel Al-Nasher, formerly known as S.S. Major Leopold Gleim. During the war, Gleim was a Gestapo officer in Poland. In 1945, Polish authorities later sentenced him to death in absentia. One of the first of the Arabized Nazis, he changed his name to Al-Nasher and worked for an Arab propaganda organization in Paris before being summoned to Cairo and promoted to "chief adviser" in the Security Service. At a luncheon given in his honor at Cairo's Victoria Hall by the League for (East) German-Arab Brotherhood, Gleim described his organization as "the backbone of Egypt's protective apparatus against the aggressive elements of Zionism and imperialism." Another former Gestapo officer, Heinrich Sellman, is Gleim's assistant and unofficial chief of the Secret State Police, most powerful department of the Security Service. Now called Lieutenant Colonel Mohammed Sulleiman, this former Bavarian policeman is wanted in Germany for war crimes. The Political Section of the Egyptian Gestapo is run by Lieutenant Colonel Ben-Salem, known to thousands of Jews as Major Bernard Bender. During World War II, Bender headed the Gestapo's special section for detection of Jewish underground movements in Poland and Russia. He later worked as an Egyptian agent in the Arab League office in Stockholm. Fluent in Arabic, Hebrew and Yiddish, Bender questions most of his political prisoners personally. His favorite interrogation center is an old 12,000-ton Italian freighter once called "Marinajo Rosso but now better known as "The Floating Hell." Berthed in the Nile outside Cairo, the cargo vessel has been converted into a nautical prison of eighty cells. The radio room is a modern communications center from which a network of
The New Afrika Korps 167 hidden microphones reaches to all the cells. Every word spoken aboard the ship is tape-recorded. All the old Nazi tortures, plus modern brainwashing techniques borrowed from the Communists, are used to induce prisoners to perform on Bender's quiz shows. His electronic eavesdropping devices are operated by two former Soviet intelligence agents. Only the most important political prisoners, suspected plotters against the Nasser regime, are sent to the Floating Hell. Several Egyptian Jews and Egyptian Communists have been guests on the Gestapo houseboat. Bender, incidentally, is the author of a familiar-sounding decree called "The Final Solution of the Jewish-Zionist Problem Within Territories of the United Arab Republic." Security Service headquarters in Cairo's Liberty Square has its own Propaganda Department, devoted mainly to tirades against the Jews and whichever foreign powers, capitalistic or communistic, Nasser happens to be feuding with at the moment. The department is headed by former S.S. Gruppenleiter Moser, a Sudeten German now known as Hassan Nalisman, and former Gestapo agent Buble, who now uses the Arab name Amman. Other Germans with U.A.R. passports also work in this section. Patterned after the Goebbels Propaganda Ministry, the department has branches in both East and West Berlin, Istanbul, Paris, London, Stockholm, Rome and Washington. It works closely with Arab League offices and with U.A.R. officials in the United Nations. It owns an independent broadcasting station, Saut al Arab (Voice of the Arabs) and a printing office where propaganda leaflets, books, posters, cartoons and newspaper editorials are prepared. The theme is usually anti-Jewish. The Propaganda Department also has charge of the Nasser Youth Club, similar to the old Hitler Jugend. This is a branch of the Deutsch-Arabischer Bruderschaftsverband (GermanArab Brotherhood Society), an organization devoted to propagation of the Nazi faith. Colonel Moser is chairman of the Youth Club. Nasser is Honorary President and Patron; he holds membership card No. 3. The Security Service Propaganda Department operates separately from the Propaganda Ministry, which employs a small army of Nazi and neo-Nazi advisers, writers, translaters, researchers, editors, announcers and technicians. Among its present and former executives:
168 Hitler's Heirs Georges Oltramare, a Swiss fascist who worked for Radio Paris under the Vichy regime and now handles anti-Jewish propaganda for Radio Cairo. Per Olaf Anderson, Swedish fascist who worked for the Nazis in Finland during the war and now handles special propaganda missions. Daniel Perret-Gentil, Swiss journalist and former Nazi agent in France. Sentenced to death by a French war crimes tribunal in 1948, Perret-Gentil won a reprieve and was expelled from France in 1955. He followed the underground route to Egypt and became an announcer for Radio Cairo's French broadcasts. He now lives in Wiesbaden, Germany. Louis Heiden, now Louis al-Haj, former director of the Reischdeutsch Presseagentur Berlin, a Nazi news agency. Heiden owns the Beirut Printing and Publishing House. He published the first Arabic translation of Hitler's Mein Kampf and is distributing it throughout the Arab world. An estimated two million copies have been sold. Hans Appier, former assistant to Goebbels and contributor to Julius Streicher's hate sheet Der Stuermer. Appier, a specialist in anti-Jewish literature, moved from Spain to Egypt in 1955. He became chief spokesman for a neo-Nazi outfit called the Islamic Congress. He is now engaged in "psychological warfare against Israel," his own term for the worst flood of fanatic filth since the days of Goebbels and Streicher. In this project he has the wholehearted support of his old friend and fellow propagandist, Johannes von Leers, whose Argentine adventures are mentioned elsewhere in these apges. Leers has written at least fifty vehemently anti-Jewish books and pamphlets, including Jew, Look at Yourself, Blood and Race in Legislation, and Criminology of Jewry. A Nazi since 1929, he joined the S.A. Brownshirts in 1932 and the S.S. Blackshirts a year later. In 1936, with the rank of major, he was appointed to the Racial Research Department of the S.S. General Staff. During the war, he and Appier produced much of the antiJewish rubbish distributed by the Goebbels Ministry. Leers also found time to direct the Foreign Policy Department of the Nazi Political College in Berlin. With this impressive background, it was only natural that Nasser should choose him as adviser to his Propaganda Ministry. Leers adopted the Moslem faith and the Arabic alias of Omar Amin von Leers. His recent works include inflammatory broadcasts against Israel for Radio Cairo and more and-
The New Afrika Korps 169 Jewish pamphlets, which he mails to neo-Nazi groups all over the globe. He is the founder and director of Cairo Institute for Research into Zionism, which has the same basic aims as Appier's Islamic Congress. His daughter and several Arab students who take German lessons from the ageing Leers are active in his institute. In June, 1959, the Bonn Foreign Office canceled Leers' passport, saying his work for Nasser "is endangering the democratic institutions" of West Germany. For five years, his home at 52 11th Street in the Meadi suburb of Cairo has been a center for Nazi intrigue and a meeting place for some of the world's most depraved criminals. From his comfortable villa and downtown office, Leers keeps the underground route to Arabia open. He handles correspondence between Die Spinne's main offices in Cairo, Argentina and Germany and its many branches in other lands. No one knows how many Nazi war criminals Leers has helped cheat justice. The number undoubtedly runs into the hundreds. He helped arrange Adolf Eichmann's flight to Buenos Aires in 1950. He planned the escapes of Karl Klingenfuss and Franz Rademacher in 1950 and 1952. And in 1958 he engineered two sensational vanishing acts. The first was the flight of Dr. Hans Eisele, the Buchenwald butcher. Eisele jumped bail and left Germany on July 9, 1958. His wife pretended she had no idea where he went, but she admitted receiving an anonymous letter *'in which I was informed that he is no longer in Germany and that I will get more news from him at a later date." The news was not long in coming. On July 12, Eisele landed in Cairo and was promptly arrested. A wire service photograph, reprinted in Germany, showed him in custody of two Egyptian policemen. Cairo cops turned him over to Interpol authorities, who put him in a detention jail for foreigners on the outskirts of the city. He was visited there by von Leers and other fugitive Nazis. The Bonn Foreign Office contacted U.A.R. authorities on July 29, requesting the doctor's extradition and specifying the charges against himr On August 5, an official of the Bonn Embassy in Cairo predicted that the extradition order would be issued "in a matter of days." Then, on August 10, Egyptian officials announced they knew nothing about Eisele or his whereabouts. They said he was not in the foreigners' jail and had never been there. On Aug. 18, Cairo authorities again denied any knowledge of the
170 Hitler's Heirs case. Shown the wire service photograph, a high police official asked: "How do we know that's Eisele?" A few weeks later, the Egyptians admitted Eisele's presence and announced he was working as medical supervisor of a provincial hospital. In September, Mrs. Eisele sold the family home in Munich-Passing. In November, the German Foreign Office announced its efforts to extradite Eisele had failed. In early December, Mrs. Eisele left for Cairo with her daughter and two sons. A few days after the doctor's family arrived, another escaping Nazi popped up in Cairo. He was Ludwig Zind, then 52, an Offenburg high-school teacher. A former Nazi stormtrooper, Zind had been convicted of making slanderous anti-Semitic remarks. He was accused of insulting Kurt Lieser, a half-Jewish merchant, and of telling him that the concentration camps "didn't gas half enough Jews." At his trial, Zind not only admitted the charges but made additional anti-Semitic remarks and defended Hitler's racial policies. Sentenced to a year in jail, he was released on his own recognizance pending appeal. The German Supreme Court upheld his conviction on Nov. 28, 1958. When Offenburg police went to his home next day to arrest him, they found he had disappeared. Bankrolled by the Nazi underground, Zind had gone to Naples where he booked passage for Egypt on a Greek liner. His fellow passengers later remembered the German "tourist" with a Hitler-type mustache and dueling scars on his face. Zind's German passport had been confiscated after his first trial, so he used the passport of a niece's brother-in-law, Helmut Vollmer, who had died a few months earlier. To assume Vollmer's identity, the fugitive simply switched passport picttures. On December 8, German newsmen discovered Zind was living in a Cairo pension called Hotel Nasser under the Vollmer alias. His first visitors were Dr. and Mrs. Eisele and their benefactor, Johannes von Leers. Zind went to work for Leers' Research Institute and Appier's Islamic Congress. Then he found a more lucrative job— geology instructor at the American-sponsored University of Libya. In July 1960, he brazenly returned to Germany with an Egyptian "stateless person" passport. He sneaked in and out of Offenburg without difficulty and visited other towns where he had friends and relatives. He sent postcards bearing his
The New Afrika Korps 171 signature and Nazi slogans, to newspapers, magazines and public officials. Ernest Zaugg, former Boston newsman who now runs the Hometown Feature Agency in Munich, accompanied him on a tour of Bonn and photographed him chatting with a policeman in front of the Bundestag, riding a merry-go-round at a carnival and in various other public papers. By the time the pictures appeared in a German magazine several days later, Zind was on his way to the Olympic games in Rome. But he never got there. An Italian boy, more alert than Zind's fellow countrymen, recognized him from the magazine photos and pointed him out to police. Italian authorities later sent him back to Germany to begin serving his prison term. Zind had intended to return to Egypt on the Italian liner Citta di Tunesi, docked in Naples. His name was found on the passenger list. The initial escapes of Eisele and Zind finally alerted German authorities to the existence of an underground route to Cairo. Walter Krause, state legislator in Baden-Wuerttemberg, charged that the Nazi underground had spirited both men out of the country. Several newspapers pointed out the similarities in the two flights. Die Welt der Arbeit (World of Labor), official publication of the West German Federation of Trade Unions, said the same organization that routed fleeing Nazis to Argentina after World War II was now sending them to Egypt. Additional evidence of the underground railway's activities was uncovered a few days after Zind's arrival in Cairo. Dr. Otto Schweinsberger, Frankfurt prosecutor, was accused in December, 1958, of making anti-Semitic statements. An arrest order was issued almost immediately. But Die Spinne moved even faster. After the prosecutor was in custody, police discovered an airline reservation had been made in his name for a flight from Munich to Cairo and a room had been reserved for him in a swank Cairo hotel. Dr. Schweinsberger claimed he knew nothing about the travel arrangements. The airline booking was made by phone and police were unable to trace the call. All they learned was that it was made an hour to two before police arrived at bis home to arrest him. As things turned out, the emergency flight plan was not needed. The complaint against Schweinsberger was dropped. When it comes to answering questions about the Nazis he
172 Hitler's Heirs employs, the usually-talkative Colonel Nasser makes the Sphinx look like a blabbermouth. Their number and identities are a state secret, closely guarded by Nasser, his Arab aides and the Nazis themselves. Most of them have taken Arab names and some have embraced the Moslem faith, presumably to please their boss. Time, the harsh Mid-East climate, hair dyes and plastic surgery have altered the features of some. The most notorious carefully avoid contact with foreigners who might recognize them. These shadowy figures are hidden away in obscure government offices, outlying police and military posts, prisons, detention camps and other out-of-the-way places that foreigners seldom visit. As the Nazis control virtually all the official information sources—police, propaganda, immigration, etc.—it is almost impossible to track them down. Those who try, no matter how discreet their efforts, run up against a blank wall. Those who ask embarrasing questions are promptly jailed or deported. More than one investigator has been found dead in an alley, a knife or bullet wound in his back. Anne Sharpley, London Evening Standard correspondent who was expelled from Egypt, reported: "Colonel Nasser threw me out of Egypt for a very good reason. I had found out too much about his regime. I had found out about his concentration camps. But worst of all, I had found—and interviewed—the Nazi propagandist he keeps hidden in his ten-story Ministry of Information pouring out practiced anti-Semitic hatred against Israel. That was the last straw and I was asked to leave within twenty-four hours." The propagandist was von Leers. Concerning the concentration camps, Miss Sharpley wrote: "In concentration camps far out in the Western Desert, Nasser keeps some 25,000 of his enemies in conditions which rival the brutality of the Nazi camps. I was shown the sworn testimony of a man who died in such a camp. It is a terrible document. "Among those things it is fit to mention is the song that prisoners have to sing in praise of Nasser. Those who do not sing loudly enough are clubbed. Those who fall unconscious are trampled by the guards and often buried before they are dead. The prisoners are forced to carry loads of sand backwards and forwards across the camp all day. . ." The resemblance between Nasser's hell-holes and the Nazi concentration camps is no coincidence. The U.A.R. camps,
The New Afrika Korps 173 where more than 100,000 prisoners are now detained, are supervised by commanders and guards from Hitler's konzentrationslager. Gestapo Major Joachim Daemmling, formerly of Dusseldorf, is the Security Service adviser on political trials and concentration camps. Dr. Heinrich Willerman, former S.S. medical officer and sterilization specialist, is chief physician at Samarra camp in the desert 200 miles west of Cairo. A former army post, Samarra was remodeled from Nazi concentration camp plans and phctos supplied by Willerman. Except for gas chambers and crematories, the U.A.R. camps employ all the old methods of torture and murder. Some of them even have fierce Alsation dogs trained to tear prisoners apart on command. These dogs, favorite pets of German CC commanders, were unknown in Arabia before the Nazis came. A report in the files of the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, New York, lists these common "indignities and atrocities inflicted upon (Nasser's) political prisoners:" Extraction of prisoners' finger and toe nails. Application of lighted cigarets to sensitive parts of the body. Insertion of a rubber hose, through which air is pumped until the prisoner loses consciousness. Tightening a steel ring around the prisoner's head until he blacks out. Scores of prisoners have died or become insane from this widely-practiced torture. Confining prisoners in cells so small they can neither stand nor lie down. Binding prisoners' hands and feet so they cannot move and leaving them in complete darkness with cold water dripping continually on their heads or bodies. Turning "wild dogs" loose on prisoners. Significantly, all of the tortures named in the U.N. report were in everyday use throughout the Nazi CC system. Although Arab torturers have their own peculiar devices, these particular methods are Germanic, not Arabic. According to witnesses, Nazis took part in the torturemurder of Dr. Farid Hadded, a case that attracted the attention of both the Human Rights Commission and the International Red Cross. Son of a Swedish missionary, Dr. Haddad ran a free medical clinic in the Cairo slums. His friends and patients included Communists and members of the outlawed Moslem Brotherhood. Nasser's Gestapo arrested him on Nov. 20, 1959. Six days later, his wife was summoned to Police Headquarters
Hitler's Heirs and presented with a sealed coffin allegedly containing Dr. Haddad's remains. She was not allowed to open the coffin. Interment took place in the presence of police. It was later learned that Dr. Haddad was tortured to death at Kharga camp in the desert near the Sudanese frontier. Fellow prisoners said his torturers were trying to get the names and addresses of his anti-Nasser patients. This case is only one of many such murders attributed to Nasser's Nazis. A former political prisoner's account of life in Abu Zaabal camp reads almost exactly like the stories of thousands of Nazi CC survivors: "After a sleepless night we arrived at Abu Zaabal at five o'clock in the morning, suffering from fatigue, hunger and cold. We were attended by soldiers armed with submachine guns and batons. With the officers bawling out commands, we were herded together 500 yards from the main prison. All our valuables, including wedding rings, were taken from us. An officer on horseback, whip in hand, accompanied by two soldiers armed with clubs, ordered us to pick up our belongings and fall in, five-deep. "We were forced to run, under constant beatings with whip and club, to the prison fence. There, an officer took our names and addresses, at the same time swearing at us and slapping our faces. He was assisted by guards who slapped and kicked us incessantly. We were then manacled and forced to run a gauntlet of clubs. We were transferred to another place and the beatings went on until we could no longer tell where the blows came from. "We were forced to strip naked and were led before another officer who subjected us to yet another interrogation and more beatings. "Finally we experienced the torture known as the 'tailor's dummy.' We were tied to a wooden pole and lashed and subjected to other kinds of violence. "Upon our return to the cells, we received prisoners' uniforms. At night, after twenty-four hours, we were finally given some food. From then on, we were employed each day in hauling stones, under constant beating with clubs, whips and fists. "We were beaten while being searched and questioned. We were beaten when being fed and we were beaten when we lay down at night." Though this statement does not mention Nazis, the Konzentrationslager technique is apparent. "Tailor's dummy," or
The New Afrika Korps 175 "Schneiderpuppe," was the Nazi nickname for victims of the whipping post. Many former inmates of Nasser's political prisons have reported the presence of whip-swinging, pistol-packing Germans. However, these reliable eye-witnesses did not learn the identities of the Nazi torture experts. There is an unconfirmed report that Joachim Daemmling, unofficial chief of Nasser's concentration camps and political prisons, takes orders from no less a personage than S.S. Lieutenant General Richard Gluecks, Hitler's Inspector General of Concentration Camps. It was Gluecks who picked a dismal swamp near Cracow, Poland, as a "suitable site" for a new camp that was to make hellish history as Auschwitz, greatest murder factory ever built. He was responsible for seeing that all the camps ran smoothly and that the extermination centers kept their crematory ovens burning night and day. Gluecks vanished without a trace in 1945. But rumors persist that he is still alive in the Middle East, performing the same old duties for another dictator. Another high-ranking mass murderer reported living in Egypt is S.S. Major General Fritz Katzmann, former Higher S.S. and Police Leader in the western Ukraine. He organized the massacre of more than 400,000 Jews. Although he was reported dead after the war, his death was never verified. Witnesses have sworn they saw him alive in Egypt in recent years. Literally hundreds of concentration camp commanders, officers, doctors and guards disappeared in 1945. Most of them were never caught. Among the missing camp commanders are Gustav Willhaus of Treblinka; Hans Bethmann of Chelmo; Anton Burger of Terezin; Franz Staengel of Treblinka; Fritz Suhren of Ravensbrueck; Karl Fritsch and Ludwig Baumgartner of Auschwitz. It is a safe guess that some of these men are running similar camps in the United Arab Republic today. Nasser's Israel Department is another busy employment center for Nazi war criminals. Among the officials in this department are: Wilhelm Boeckeler, former S.S. Sturmfuehrer (Lieutenant), reportedly participated in the Warsaw Ghetto massacres, now known as Abdul Mah Krim. Karl Hotter, former Gestapo chief of Oppeln. Erich Buenz, former S.S. Sturmfuehrer, now called Ali Allan.
176 Hitler's Heirs Albert Thielemann, former S.S. leader in Reichenberg, now called Aman Khader. Other fugitive Nazis are working in U.A.R. embassies, consulates, legations and propaganda offices throughout Europe, Asia and the Americas. Fritz Roessler, former Nazi leader in Saxony; elected to Bundestag as Fritz Richter and served there until he was exposed in 1952; later fled to Cairo and became a Moslem. Former Gestapo Captains Theodor Dannekera and Heinz Roethke, Eichmann's deputies in Paris, are believed to be working for the Syrian Secret Service. Another former Gestapo officer in occupied Paris, S.S. Lieutenant Seipel, is an adviser on political police affairs to the Egyptian Interior Ministry. U.A.R. militia units are commanded by Antonio Menteigazzi, former Fascist militia leader in Italy, where he is wanted for war crimes. A former Wehrmacht officer, Colonel Kribel, is attached to the Egyptian General Staff. S.S., Wehrmacht and Waffen S.S. officers comprise more than 50 per-cent of the Syrian Army officers corps. Dr. Wilhelm Voss, former Nazi industrialist, wartime head of the Hermann Goering Works and the Skoda Works in occupied Czechoslovakia, was director of the Egyptian Central Planning Board in Cairo. His duties included advise on mineral and oil explorations; construction of streets, buildings and waterways, and technical development of new industries. Dr. Voss returned to Germany a few years ago and now lives in or near Munich. Though the United Arab Republic today employs more Nazi war criminals than any other nation (with the possible exception of Germany), it is not the only African refuge for Hitler's henchmen. The Union of South Africa employs many ex-Nazis in its police and army, its hospitals and industries. Gestapo and S.S. alumni are enforcing South Africa's apartheid laws with the same methods used to enforce Hitler's racial laws. Several wanted war criminals were among the South African commandos sent to Angola in the spring of 1961 to help the Portugese administration deal with native terrorism. France, which has ample reason to hate the Nazis, hired more than 10,000 of them to fight its colonial wars. There are more Germans than Frenchmen in the French Foreign Legion, including hundreds of criminals wanted for wartime atrocities. The Legion is one place the Nazi killers are safe, even from such relentless hunters as Israel's secret agents. But if French
177 The New Afrika Korps President DeGaulle carries out his threat to abolish the Legion, his Nazi mercenaries will have to find a new hiding place.
Late in 1952, Die Spinne sent one of its most famous trouble-shooters home to Germany to revive Nazism at the source, stage a prison break and keep a rendezvous with a ghost. The man picked for these various missions was Col. Hans Ulrich (Tank-Buster) Rudel, Germany's most-decorated air ace. As a fighter pilot on the Russian front, he was credited with destroying 519 Soviet tanks and a Black Sea battleship during more than 2800 combat missions. Hitler called him "the most successful airman of all the air forces in the world" and awarded him the Third Reich's highest decoration for valor, the Golden Oak Leaves with Diamonds and Swords to the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross. Though not wanted for war crimes, he fled to Argentina after the war and received a hero's welcome from both the Peron government and the German community. A popular idol who did not have to hide from international justice, he became one of Die Spinne's most valuable agents. Rudel and another Luftwaffe fighter ace, Lieutenant General Adolph Galland, worked as test pilots for a Buenos Aires plant run by Dr. Willy Tank, former construction chief of the Focke-Wolf aviation works. When not breaking in jets for Per6n's Air Force, the onelegged colonel found time to write Nazi propaganda, address Nazi rallies, recruit members for neo-Nazi organizations and drag his artifical limb up some of the highest peaks in the Andes on mountain-climbing expeditions. He contributed articles to Der Weg, official publication of the Nazi underground, and other right-wing hate sheets. His Luftwaffe exploits made him much in demand as a speaker at gatherings of S.S. alumni, German-Argentine youth organizations and Nazi cells throughout South America. In 1952, it was decided that he should return to Germany as a sort of traveling salesman for the Nazi underground. He was to spread the Nazi gospel and see what support he could rally for an open show of strength. He arrived in Bonn for a December reunion of some onehundred former Wehrmacht, Luftwaffe and S.S. Elite Guard 178
The Plotters 179 officers. The meeting was organized and paid for by Ernst von Reichenau, publisher of the Military Science Review and brother of the late Field Marshal Walter von Reichenau, who was involved in massacres of Ukrainian Jews. Guest speaker Rudel showed up in his Luftwaffe uniform, the Golden Oak Leaves award dangling from a silk ribbon around his neck in the illegal Nazi style. Screaming abuse at all who had turned against Hitler, he denounced German treaties with the Allies, leaders of the new "democratic" German army and Bonn's anti-Nazi officials. And he described former German officers who had joined the western alliance as "traitors and dishonored human beings." Though the meeting supposedly was closed to the press, Rudel's remarks were too explosive to escape journalistic attention. Several newspapers picked up parts of his speech, thus tipping off Allied intelligence services to his presence in Germany. However, they were not aware that Rudel was planning a raid more daring than any he had undertaken during World War II. A day or two after the Bonn meeting, Rudel contacted Dr. Erich Mende, Free Democratic Party member of the Bundestag (West German Parliament) and persistent petitioner for the release of jailed Nazi war criminals. Rudel outlined a fantastic scheme for raiding Werl prison in the British occupation zone and releasing 102 war criminals held there. The plot was to be financed and carried out by the Nazi underground. Disguised as British soldiers, Rudel's raiders were to break into the prison, overpower the guards, free the war criminals and transport them in trucks to prearranged hideouts where they would be given civilian clothes, money, forged passports and instructions for fleeing the country on the "underground railway." Similar raids, on a much smaller scale, had been carried out in the past to free individual Nazis, such as the fabulous Colonel Otto Skorzeny. But the Werl prison plot was by far the biggest and boldest such venture ever envisioned by Hitler's heirs. Rudel assured Dr. Mende that he had the men for the raid. But he said he needed "help in high places" to protect the plotters and cover the mass escapes. Dr. Mende refused to have anything to do with it. The Luftwaffe hero then approached a former Waffen S.S. general and a former officer of the Brandenburg Regiment with his plan. They also refused to help. Three rebuffs in a row apparently convinced Rudel that bis
180 Hitler's Heirs scheme stood little chance of success. So he gave it up and flew back to Argentina. But before he went, he made one more call. British agents tailed him to Neuss, a small Rhineland city near Dusseldorf. There he got in touch with the manager of a local chemical firm. Curious, the agents made a routine check of the manager's background and discovered to their surprise that he was Dr. Werner Naumann, former State Secretary of the Nazi Propaganda Ministry. Naumann supposedly was dead. Hitler's chauffeur had sworn Naumann and Martin Bormann were blown to bits by a Russian bazooka shell. But there he was in Neuss—healthy, wealthy and very much alive. Subsequent investigation by the British uncovered a Nazi plot far more sinister than Rudel's jail-break scheme. This plot to restore Nazi power in Germany was considered so serious that Sir Ivone Kirkpatrick, British High Commissioner for Germany, rushed to London in January, 1953, to discuss it personally with Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden. After their talks, arrests began. On January 14 and 15, Naumann and six other once-prominent Nazis were picked up by British Public Safety officers and military police in the Hamburg and Dusseldorf areas. They were accused of plotting to seize control of the West German government by infiltrating three respectable rightwing parties—the Free Democrats and the German Party, both members of Chancellor Konrad Adenauer's coalition, and the All-German bloc, formerly the Refugee Party. Naumann was named as the ringleader. The other six were: Dr. Gustav Scheel—a hospital doctor in Hamburg, he was named in Hitler's will as the new Nazi Minister of Culture. He served the Third Reich as a student leader and as Gauleiter of Salzburg, Austria. Paul Zimmerman, former S.S. brigade commander and official in the S.S. Economic and Administration Department which handled the administration of concentration camps. Dr. Heinrich Haselmeyer—associated with Hitler's Munich putsch in 1923, he became leader of the Nazi Students League in Hamburg and author of books on "racial science" and the sterilization of the "unfit." He has a medical practice in the Hamburg suburb of Bergedorf. Heinz Siepen—part owner of the Punktal steel works in Solingen, he is a former Nazi district leader and Land (State) Councilor. Dr. Karl Scharping, former radio official of the Reich Propaganda Ministry.
The Plotters 181 Dr. Karl Kaufmann, former Gauleiter for Hamburg and Reich Commissioner for Shipping. Spokesmen for the French High Commission said that, "on the basis of our own reports," they were certain the British had good reason for ordering the arrests. Dr. Adenauer made no immediate comment. Two months later, he announced that the seven Nazis had been "preparing and planning to seize power within the next four years." The Chancellor added that they had outside help from the Nazi underground and from Fascists in Britain, France and Belgium. Dr. Adenauer said Naumann, who succeeded Dr. Goebbels as Reich Propaganda Minister under terms of Hitler's will, might be tried for high treason. The British High Commission turned the conspirators over to the Bonn government for trial. Kaufmann, a minor member of the ring, was released due to ill health. His place in the lineup was taken by Dr. Friedrich Karl Bornemann, former Hitler Youth official. Six months after the original arrests, the West German Supreme Court released Naumann and his pals without bail pending investigation of the charges. Naumann promptly entered politics. Within a week of his release, the ultranationalist German Reich Party announced that Naumann would be among its candidates for the Bundestag. By a remarkable coincidence, another German Reich candidate for a Bundestag seat in 1953 was Colonel Hans Ulrich Rudel. Returning to Germany in August, he immediately tossed his Luftwaffe cap into the political ring. But his candidacy was prohibited on the grounds that his legal residence was in Argentina. A little thing like a legal barrier didn't stop Rudel, however. On August 31, he went to Nuremberg to address a Reichspartei rally which had been banned by local authorities. Some 3000 former Nazis, Nazi sympathizers and anti-Nazis turned out and police had to use clubs and tear gas to break up the riots. Rudel then drove to nearby Fuerth, where the same thing happened. Police and firemen used mobile water pumps to disperse some 2000 demonstrators. Meanwhile, Naumann also was having trouble with local authorities. In Dortmund, city officials banned a Reichspartei meeting he was scheduled to address, so Naumann revived Hitler's beer-hall technique. He invited his followers to join him in a local brau haus. And there, along with great quantities of beer and knockwurst, he fed them the old National Socialist party line.
182 Hitler's Heirs A few nights later, Hanover authorities prohibited a Naumann rally. The candidate and about 1000 of his admirers took over a large beer hall, just as Hitler had done in Bavaria almost 40 years earlier. Hopping onto the bandstand, Naumann raised his right arm in the Nazi salute and began his speech with a favorite Hitler greeting—"German men and women . . ." His theme was that Nazi Germany had been a bulwark against communism. He said: "Without the year 1933 (the year Hitler seized power), Europe would have been bolshevized long ago." Just as his rabble-rousing campaign was shifting into high gear, the Naumann bandwagon was overturned by the state of North Rhine Westphalia. State government officials classified Naumann as a Nazi, stripped him of voting rights and thus ousted him from the parliamentary election campaign. In December, 1954, the Federal Supreme Court dismissed the conspiracy charges against Naumann and his six co-defendants. The court found the seven, especially Naumann, "represented National Socialistic (Nazi) ideas and aims, which are unconstitutional, but it could not be established whether or how far these efforts were carried out." The ruling was a smashing victory for the Nazi underground. The government's case against the conspirators was based largely on documents discovered in their homes. Like many German plotters before them, they had found it necessary to write a great deal down. But the court held that the documentary evidence was not enough without the corroborating testimony of witnesses. The prosecution was unable to produce such witnesses. The defendants were careful not to incriminate themselves, and their associates had disappeared. Several of Naumann's exNazi cronies went into hiding when his arrest was announced in the German press. Among those who vanished during the Naumann gang roundup was former Major General Otto Ernst Remer, known in Nazi circles as "the man who saved Hitler's life." Remer's quick action prevented German generals from killing Hitler after their bomb plot failed in July, 1944. For this "heroism," he was promoted on the spot from major to colonel, and later to general. After the war, Remer became a leader of the Socialist Reich Party, generally considered a reincarnation of the Nazi party. When the SRP was declared unconstitutional in 1952,
183 The Plotters many of its politicians and members joined the Deutsche Reichspartei, or German Reich Party. Remer went underground in January, 1953. He caught a slow boat to Egypt and popped up in Cairo two months later. In July, 1953, he was placed under house arrest by Egyptian authorities. The West German embasssy in Cairo was not advised of his arrest and Lieutenant Colonel El Balirawi, chief of the special investigation branch of the Interior Ministry, denied that he was in Egypt. But western intelligence agents learned Remer had submitted a memorandum to Egyptian authorities proposing that they set up a Nazi-type government throughout the Arab world. The memo urged that Egypt and the other Arab states be reorganized along the lines of the Third Reich, President Mohammed Naguib dismissed Remer's suggestions as ridiculous. However, the scheme did not sound so crazy to Colonel Gamel Abdel Nasser. When Nasser removed Naguib and seized control of the government in 1954, the Remer memorandum became a blueprint for the future United Arab Republic and its Nazi advisers. Remer is now back in Germany. As a retired major general, he gets a fat government pension check each month. He and Or. Naumann still dabble in the right-wing politics, though neither are as active as their old friend and fellow Nazi, Colonel Rudel. In November, 1960, the West German Censorship Board banned Rudel's new book, Of War and Peace, from schools and public libraries. It was called "dangerous to youth," The hook glorifies the Hitler regime, calls World War II "a holy war" and dismisses German atrocities as "mistakes that occurred in the heat of battle." The Censorship Board found it "a hate and propaganda book against the present democratic order." An earlier book, Trotzdem (Nevertheless) also was banned from youth and school libraries as "unsuitable for adolescents." In addition to his hard-cover war stories, Rudel has found a ready market for his poison penmanship in the new German pulp magazines. He writes lurid Nazi prose for several of these "dime novels," even going so far as to quote Hitler. Rudel's evil influence on German youth came to light after Arnold Strunk and Paul Schoenen were arrested for smearing swastikas and anti-Jewish slogans on a Cologne synagogue and it memorial to victims of Nazi persecution. The Cologne incident, on Christmas Eve, 1959, set off a chain reaction of antiSemitic acts throughout the civilized world.
Hitler's Heirs 184 Both Strunk and Schoenen belonged to the Cologne county organization of the German Reich Party. In Strunk's apartment, police found a portrait of Rudel, a copy of "Trotzdem," several magazines to which Rudel had contributed, other Reichspartei literature and clothing painted with party insignia. National chairman of the Reich Party is Wilhelm Meinberg, former Reichstag deputy, S.S. major general, holder of several important Nazi posts and of the Golden Nazi party emblem. At party rallies, he boasts: "I am proud of the fact that I was a Nazi." Other top party leaders include Adolf von Thadden, former Webnnacht tank officer; Otto Hess, a relative of Hitler's demented deputy, and Prof. Dr. Heinrich Kunstmann, former Nazi official and regimental doctor in Hitler's S.A. stormtroopers. These men, supported and directed by the Nazi underground,, believe the tide of history once more is turning in their direction. They believe it is only a question of time until the German people and the new German army rally once more to the Nazi banners. "Treaties with the West must disappear," they shout. ''Germany must be independent and reunified. "We are a nation of eighty million people in the heart of Europe. We must fulfill our destiny."
Appendix: HITLER'S HUNDRED
The men listed below are a cross-section of the survivors of the Third Reich. Some are in hiding, some under arrest; some have "lived down" their past—or have been forgotten by an over-indulgent world. The reader may find it instructive to look for their names in the news stories of the next few years. 1. ADAM, Otto, Dr.—medical experiments at Buchenwald, Sachsenhausen; arrested in Germany. 2. AGH, Laszlo—Hungarian Nazi, labor camp commander; now living in USA, deportation ordered. 3. ARAJS, Viktor, Major—Head of pro-Nazi Latvian "Perkonkrust" party in Riga, helped organize Riga massacres; alive in Germany. 4. ARTUKOVIC, Andrija—Minister of Interior in pro-Nazi government of Croatia; now living in USA. 5. AXMANN, Artur—Reich Youth. Leader; now executive of China Trade Society, active in attempts to revive Nazism in Germany. 6. BAER, Richard—Last commandant of Auschwitz, found working as forester in Germany, arrested for war crimes. 7. BARGEN, Werner von—Nazi Foreign Office official in Belgium; employed in Bonn Foreign Office until Nazi past disclosed in 1952. 8. BENE, Otto—Nazi Foreign Office official in Holland; employed by Bonn Foreign Office after war. 9. BEINERT, Berthold—Nazi Foreign Office official in Barcelona, induced Jews to return to Germany; now director of Interpreters' Institute, Heidelberg University. 1 0 . BENDER, August, Dr.—Buchenwald selection doctor; sentenced to death, commuted to 10 years, now free. 11. BERGER, Gottlob, Waffen S.S. General—chief of S.S. Main Office; sentenced to 25 years, released 1951, still active in neo-Nazi circles. 12. BEST, Karl Werner—Reich Plenipotentiary in Denmark; sentenced to death; now living prosperously in Germany,
13. BIBERSTEIN, Ernst, S.S. Lt. Col.—Commander Einsatzkommando 6; of Einsatzgruppe C; sentenced to death, commuted to life, released in 1958. 14. BICKENBACH, Otto, Dr.—S.S. doctor in Netzweiler and Struthof camps; alive in Germany. 15. BIRGEL, Werner—Former S.S. leader, Leipzig; now in United Arab Republic. 16. BLUM, Walter, S.S. Colonel—Commander Sonderkommando 7a of Einsatzgruppe B; sentence, hanging; alive in Germany. 17. BOECKELER, Wilhelm, S.S. Captain—Participated in liquidation of Warsaw Ghetto; now in UAR. 18. BORMANN, Martin, S.S. General—Deputy Fuehrer, chief of Party Chancellory; escaped from Berlin after Hitler's death; now hiding in South America. 19. BRAEUTIGAM, Otto—Nazi Foreign Office official; joined postwar Bonn Foreign Office, West German Consul General in Hongkong. 20. BUDEIASZEK, Stefan, Dr.—S.S. physician at Auschwitz; practiring in Germany under alias of Buthner. 21. BUENZ, Erich—S.S. officer, now in UAR. 22. CAPESIUS, Viktor, Dr.—Head of Auschwitz pharmacy, administrator of Zyklon B gas supplies; alive in Germany. 23. GLAUBERG, Karl, Dr.— Medical experiments, sterilization expert; back in Germany after prison term in Soviet Union. 24. CUKURS, Herbert—Latvian Nazi, participant in Riga massacres; now in Brazil. 25. DANNECKER, Theodor, S.S. Captain—Eichmann's deputy in France, Bulgaria, Italy; disappeared after war, reported in Syria. 26. DELMONTE, Hans, Dr.—Head of Auschwitz clinic, medical experiments, mass murder; missing since the war. 27. DEHRING (or DOEHRING), Wladyslaw, Dr.; Auschwitz physician, medical experiments; hospital director in British Somaliland. 28. DIRLEWANGER, Oskar, S.S. General; head of Dirlewanger Brigade; convicted sex pervert; responsible for massacres in Poland, White Russia; missing since war, reported alive in UAR. 29. DOENITZ, Karl, Admiral—Wartime Commander of German Navy; Hitler's successor; sentenced to 10 Years, released in 1956. 30. DURCANSKY, Ferdinand—Foreign Minister of pro-Nazi Slovakia; accused of war crimes; now living in Munich, active in international Nazi circles.
100 Wanted War Criminals 187 31. EHRLINGER, Erich, S.S. General—Einsatzgruppe commander, massacres on Russian front; arrested 1961 for trial in Germany. 32. EICKE, Theodor—Inspector of Concentration Camps; missing since war. 33. EIRENSCHMALZ, Franz—S.S. officer in charge of construction, maintenance of Auschwitz-Birkenau gas chambers; sentence, hanging; now free in Germany. 34. EISELE, Hans, Dr.—S.S. physician at Dachau, medical experiments; now in UAR. 35. ELLENBECK, H.D., Dr.—S.S. physician, Buchenwald; alive in Germany. 36. ELIAS, Hendrik—Belgian Nazi leader, chief of Flemish Nationalist Movement; sentenced to death by Belgium, released in 1959. 37. FALKENHAUSEN, Alexander von, General—Convicted of war crimes by Brussels court, sentenced to 12 years, released after few weeks, alive in Germany. 38. FLICK, Friedrich; Nazi industrialist; used slave labor, confiscated foreign properties; released from prison 1950; sow billionaire, head of industrial empire. 39. FRANK, Willi, Dr.—Chief of Auschwitz dental clinic, removal of gold from teeth of gas chamber victims; practicing in Germany. 40. FRTTSCH, Karl, S.S. Captain—Commander of Auschwitz prison camp, deputy of Auschwitz commandant Rudolf Hoess; missing since 1945. 41. FUNK, Walter—Reich Minister of Economics, Reichsbank president; sentence, life imprisonment; released 1957. 42. GERSTEIN, Kurt, S.S. Lieut.—Official in S.S. Health Institute, supplied Zyklon B gas to death camps; escaped from Allied custody in 1956; still missing. 43. GLOBOCNIK, Odilo, S.S. General—Higher S.S. and Police Leader, Lublin; Gauleiter of Vienna; responsible for 2 million deaths; missing since war, death reports unsubstantiated. 44. GLUECKS, Richard, S.S. General—Inspector General of Concentration Camps; missing since war, may be in UAR; suicide report doubtful. 45. GORGASZ, Hans Bodo, Dr.—Director Hadamar Sanatorium, euthanasia expert; sentence, hanging; commuted to life, released 1958; now living in Frankfurt. 46. GROSSMANN, Ernst—Former officer in S.S. Death's Head unit; now adviser to East German dictator Walter Ulbricht.
47. GRUENWALD, Wilhelm, Dr.—Medical experiments, Auschwitz; missing since war. 48. GUENTHER, Rolf, S.S. Major—Eichmann's deputy; reward offered by Bonn 1961. 49. GUENTHER, Hans, S.S. Captain—Brother of Rolf; Eichmann's agent in Prague; reward offered by West German government 1961. 50. HAHN, Ludwig, S.S. Colonel—Security Police Commander in Warsaw Ghetto; arrested in Germany. 51. HARSTER, Wilbelm, S.S. Colonel—Security Police Commander in Holland and Italy; sentenced to 12 years in Holland but released. 52. HELLWEIG, Guenter—S.S. and S.D. officer; now police official in Germany. 53. HIRT, August, Prof.—Director Anatomical Institute of Strasbourg; collected skulls of Jews, Russians for "scientific research;" missing since war, 54. HOEFLE, Hans, S.S. Colonel—Globocnik's Chief of Staff; escaped from Austrian custody 1947; rearrested in Austria 1961. 55. HOETTL, Willi (Walter Hagen), S.S. Lt.-Colonel—Deputy chief of Himmler's Foreign Intelligence Service; later US agent; now high school principal in Austria. 56. HUNSCHE, Otto—Eichmann's aide in Hungary; arrested for trial in Germany. 57. JOST, Heinz, S.S. General—Commander Einsatzgruppe A; sentenced to life imprisonment; now free in Germany. 58. JUETTNER, Max, S.S. General—Chief of S.S. Leadership Office; Himmler's personal adjutant; at liberty in Germany. 59. KAESSLER, Anton, S.S. Colonel—Commander of Sachsenhausen camp; alive in Germany. 60. KAMMLER, Heinz, S.S. General—Chief of S.S. Construction Department; built gas chambers, crematories, underground war plants; disappeared during Battle of Berlin, believed to be working for Soviet Union. 61. KATZMANN, Fritz, S.S. General—Higher S.S. and Police Leader, Lvov area; responsible for massacre of 400,000 Jews; reported living in UAR. 62. KLINGELHOFER, Waldemar, S.S. Major—Officer of Sonderkommando 7b of Einsatzgruppe B; sentence, hanging; now at liberty. 63. KLINGENFUSS, Karl—Official in Jewish section of Nazi Foreign Office; "now head of German-Argentine Chamber of Commerce in Buenos Aires.
100 Wanted War Criminals
64. KNOP, Fritz—Chief Criminal Commissioner for the Ukraine; sentenced to seven years by West Berlin court for mass murders. 65. KNOCHEN, Helmuth, S.S. Colonel—Security Police Commander Northern France-Belgium; sentenced to death by Britain, France but sentence commuted. 66. KOENIG, Hans Wilhelm, Dr.—S.S. physician, Auschwitz selections; vanished after war. 67. KREMER, Johann Paul Hermann, Dr.—S.S. physician, Auschwitz-Birkenau; released from Polish prison; sentenced to 7 years in German prison. 68. KRUPP, von Bohlen und Halbach, Alfred Felix Alwyn—owner of Krupp industrial empire, charged with responsibility for deaths of thousands of slave workers; released from prison in 1951; now bigger, richer than ever. 69. KVATERNIK, Dido—Commander of Ustashi Gestapo in proNazi Croatia; mass murders of Serbs, Jews; now in Argentina. 70. LAMMERDING, Bernhard, S.S. General—Sentenced to death in absentia by French court in 1951 for Oradour massacre, but never apprehended, alive in Germany. 71. LANGE, Kurt, S.S. Lt.-Colonel—High Gestapo and Kripo officer, adjutant to Gestapo Commander Mueller; now high official in East German Ministry for State Security, "Red Gestapo." 72. LANGE, Fritz—-S.S. Major—Commander Security Police in Latvia; escaped from German custody after 1949. 7 3. LOHSE, Heinrich—Reichskommissar for Occupied Eastern Territories; sentenced to 10 years, released 1951; awarded federal pension by Bonn government. 7 4 . LOERNER, George, S.S. General—Deputy Chief S.S. Main Economic and Administrative Office; sentence, hanging; now at liberty. 75. LOLLING, Enno, S.S. Colonel—Inspector of Concentration Camps missing since 1945. 76. MANSTEIN, Erich von, Field Marshal—Sentenced to 18 years for war crimes; released 1952; now adviser to West German Defense Ministry. 77. MASSFELDER, Franz—Nazi Interior Ministry, castration of Jews with mixed blood; now in Bonn Justice Ministry. 78. MENGELE, Josef, Dr.—-Auschwitz selections, medical experiments; alive in South America. 79. MEYER, Kurt, Waffen S.S. General—Sentence, hanging; released 1954. 80. MOHR, Robert, S.S. Colonel; Gestapo Chief of Darmstadt; es-
caped from British custody 1947; now under investigation in Germany. 81. MUELLER, Heinrich, S.S. General—Gestapo Commander; deserted to Russia in 1945. 82. MUENSCH, Hans, Dr.—Auschwitz physician; alive in Germany. 83. NAUMANN, Werner—Deputy Director Nazi Propaganda Ministry; Goebbels' successor; now manager German chemical firm; still active in Nazi circles. 84. NAUJOCKS, Alfred, S.S. and S.D. Major—Carried out Polish border plot that started World War II; kidnapped British agents in Holland; now secret agent for Nazi underground. 85. NOVAK, Franz, S.S. Captain—Eichmann's Transport Officer; arrested in Vienna 1961. 86. OTT, Adolf, S.S. Lt-Colonel—Commander Sonderkommando 7b of Einsatzgruppe B; sentence, hanging; released 1958. 87. PEIPER, Joachim, Colonel—Malmedy massacre triggerman; sentence, death; paroled in 1955; once again active in neo-Nazi circles. 88. PETERS, Gerhard—Manager of DEGESCH chemical firm that supplied Zkklon B gas to S.S. Health Office; sentenced to five years; now back in chemical business. 89. RADEMACHER, Franz—Chief of Jewish Section of Nazi Foreign Office; escaped from Germany while awaiting appeal of prison sentence, fled to Egypt; now roving ambassador of Nazi underground. 90. ROETHKE, Heinz, S.S. Captain—Eichmann's deputy in Paris; missing since war, believed to have escaped to UAR. 91. REMER, Otto, S.S. General—Saved Hitler in 1944 plot; awarded pension by Bonn government; extremely active in postwar Nazi politics. 92. REINEFARTH, Heinz, S.S. General—Suppressed 1944 Warsaw uprising; now Mayor of Westerland, Island of Sylt. 93. RUFF, Siegfried, Dr.—Director Aviation Medicine Department of Experimental Institute for Aviation, medical experiments; now professor of aviaton medicine. 94. SANDBERGER, Martin, S.S. Colonel—Commander Einsatzkommando la of Einsatzgruppe C; sentence, hanging; released 1958. 95. SCHACHT, Hjalmar H.G.—Hitler's Economics Minister, Reichsbank President; acquitted of war crimes; now runs Dusseldorf import-export bank, China Trade Society.
100 Wanted War Criminals
96. SCHLEGELBERGER, Franz—Hitler's last Justice Minister; sentenced to life, released 1950; awarded state pension in Schleswig Holstein. 97. SCHROEDER, Oskar, S.S. General—Chief of Staff Luftwaffe Medical Service, high pressure experiments; sentenced to life, now
98. SUHREN, Fritz, S.S. Lt-Colonel—Commandant Ravensbrueck; escaped from Allied internment camp, not apprehended. 99. THIELEMANN, Albert, S.S. Major—Now in Nasser's "Department Israel." 100. WILLHAUS, Gustav—Commandant Janow death camp; reported seen in UAR.
Appendix: 100 WANTED WAR CRIMINALS . . . . 7 12
26 35 42 50 59 65 71 83 92 98 107 112 127 133 139
143 157 165 178 185